Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (17/05/2016)
A Stochastic Programming Based Scheduling and Dispatch for Smart Grid with Intermittent Wind Power / Mingsheng Gao, Jian L, Wei Li and Xiao Yao, Global Journal of Technology & Optimization, 7(1), 2016 http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/a-stochastic-programming-based-scheduling-and-dispatch-for-smart-grid-with-intermittent-wind-power-2229-8711-1000191.pdf
From electricity supply side, power providers’ electricity energy is assumed to comprise two parts: one is procured from the wholesale market/national power grid, and the other is produced by their own wind generations. From electricity demand side, we assume two categories of energy users, namely traditional energy users and opportunistic energy users. Taking a unit time into account, this paper models the proﬁts of power providers as a stochastic programming problem with three system parameters to be determined, i.e., the electricity procurement, the day-ahead price corresponding to traditional energy users and the real-time price corresponding to opportunistic energy users. Our objective is to maximize providers’ proﬁts while preserving the balance between electricity supply and demand. To solve this problem, we ﬁrst convert the stochastic programming problem into a nonlinear programming problem with constraint conditions; we then solve it using standard nonlinear optimization methods. With our proposed model, power provider can not only maximize the proﬁts, but also can easily achieve the tradeoff between the proﬁts of the power providers and the penetration of wind energy by tuning the system parameters. Numerical results show our proposed method can potentially beneﬁt both power providers and energy users.
Oil Market Futures / Cambridge Econometrics, the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) and Pöyry Management Consulting. European Climate Foundation, April 2016, 59 p. https://europeanclimate.org/oil-market-futures/
The study presents the long-term impacts on oil prices and the wider economy if there is a global effort to tackle climate change. The results show that, in a world where climate policies are implemented to drive investment in low-carbon technologies, demand for oil from transport will be significantly lower: by around 11 million barrels per day in 2030 and by 60 million barrels per day in 2050. This lower oil demand would result in oil prices stabilizing to between $83 and $87 per barrel in the long run, rather than increasing to $90 per barrel by 2030 and over $130 per barrel by 2050 (in 2014 prices), as expected in the business-as-usual case. As a result, industries and consumers would benefit from reduced spending on oil, leading to net macroeconomic benefits.
Market maturity, patent renewals and the pace of innovation: the case of wind power in Germany / Marc Baudry, Béatrice Dumont, Journal of Innovation Economics & Management, n°20, Industrial Structures, Business Strategies and Innovation, 2016, pp. 131-150 https://www.cairn.info/revue-journal-of-innovation-economics-2016-2.htm
Our paper aims at exploring the link between market maturity and patent renewal decisions in the wind power sector. We use micro-level data on patent legal status and patent metrics from the Patstat database, as well as data on installed capacities. We estimate a micro-level model of renewal decisions that control for both patent metrics and market maturity. Our results show that renewal decisions are sensitive to market maturity. More specifically, market maturity positively affects the initial rent but increases the depreciation of the rent.
Environmental norms and electricity supply: an analysis of normative change and household solar PV in Australia / Fiona Haines et Dylan McConnell, Journal of Environmental Sociology, Vol. 2, n° 2, 2016, pp. 155-165 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23251042.2016.1155690
Abstract : This paper analyses normative change in electricity supply in order to understand the challenges associated with the introduction of a non-negotiable environmental norm, a change necessary to ensure long-term environmental sustainability of the supply system. The analysis combines the work of Wolfgang Streeck together with that of ecological modernisation to trace the fate of an environmental norm as it emerges within a complex pre-existing institutional context comprising social norms around accessibility, affordability and reliability as well as the more recent emphasis on the benefits of competition. The analysis shows how ‘strong’ forms of ecological modernist policy change, policies in which environmental norms were explicit, were vulnerable to carbon intensive businesses arguing that they posed too significant a social risk. Yet, solar PV has been associated with ‘weaker’ forms of ecological modernist policy development where solar proponents have succeeded in demonstrating, despite significant opposition, how solar PV can be embedded within the competition norm thereby promoting both competition and environmental goals. This weaker form of ecological modernist change may have far reaching unintended consequences as solar PV on residential houses enhances the capacity of those households as ‘prosumers’ to ensure their interests are better supported. An environmental norm may be established here but social norms around rights to an essential service may also be placed at risk.