Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (13 février 2017)

Energy Policies of IEA Countries – France 2016 Review / IEA. Paris : OECD, 2017, 211 p. http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/energy-policies-of-iea-countries—france-2016-review.html

France has a significantly low-carbon electricity mix, owing to the key role of nuclear energy. However, much of France’s nuclear fleet is reaching the end of its lifetime. Against this background, France has started an ambitious energy transition: it is a world leader in designing a governance framework with a national low-carbon strategy, carbon budgets, a carbon price trajectory and plans for energy investment. France plans to reduce the share of nuclear to 50% in the electricity mix by 2025. While some nuclear reactors may continue long-term operation under safe conditions, maintaining security of supply and a low-carbon footprint while reducing nuclear energy will require investments in renewable energy and efficiency. The 2016 IEA review of France’s energy policies highlights these and several other areas that are critical to the success of the energy transition. For example, planned growth of the share of electric vehicles and variable renewable electricity will require enhanced power system operation and flexibility, including demand-side response, smart grids and metering, and more interconnections. The financing of this transition depends upon continued carbon price signals, increasingly open markets, competition, and consumer empowerment in gas and electricity retail markets. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing France and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.

2017/2027 – Énergie centralisée ou décentralisée ? Actions critiques / Etienne Beeker. France Stratégie, janvier 2017, 4 p. (note d’analyse) http://www.strategie.gouv.fr/publications/20172027-energie-centralisee-decentralisee-actions-critiques

La transition énergétique, la baisse du coût des énergies renouvelables et l’appétence pour une maîtrise locale de la production d’énergie font aujourd’hui envisager une modification profonde de notre système électrique.

A stress test for coal in Europe under the Paris Agreement. Climate Analytics, Feb. 2017, 62 p. http://climateanalytics.org/publications/2017/stress-test-for-coal-in-the-eu.html

This report elaborates a strategy for phasing out coal in the European Union and its member states and provides a science-based shut-down schedule of coal power plants at the individual unit level, in line with the Paris Agreement long-term temperature goal.

Imperfect Markets versus Imperfect Regulation in U.S. Electricity Generation / Steve Cicala. NBER, Jan. 2017 (Working Paper No. 23053) http://www.nber.org/papers/w23053 ; draft : http://home.uchicago.edu/~scicala/papers/elec_gov_v_mkt_draft_2.pdf

This paper measures changes in electricity generation costs caused by the introduction of market mechanisms to determine output decisions in service areas that were previously using command-and-control-type operations. I use the staggered transition to markets from 1999- 2012 to evaluate the causal impact of liberalization using a nationwide panel of hourly data on electricity demand and unit-level costs, capacities, and output. To address the potentially confounding effects of unrelated fuel price changes, I use machine learning methods to predict the allocation of output to generating units in the absence of markets for counterfactual production patterns. I find that markets reduce production costs by $3B per year by reallocating output among existing power plants: Gains from trade across service areas increase by 20% based on a 10% increase in traded electricity, and costs from using uneconomical units fall 20% from a 10% reduction in their operation.

Coûts des énergies renouvelables en France. Paris : ADEME, janvier 2017, 52 p. http://www.ademe.fr/couts-energies-renouvelables-france

Dans le but de limiter le recours aux énergies fossiles et ainsi de freiner le réchauffement climatique, les filières de production d’énergie renouvelable sont en plein essor grâce aux politiques publiques mises en place en France et dans le monde. Avec la maturité croissante des différentes filières, leurs coûts de production évoluent à la baisse. Les annonces médiatiques sur ce sujet sont nombreuses et illustrent la compétitivité croissante des énergies renouvelables dans le monde. Toutefois, ces coûts varient selon de nombreux facteurs (progrès technologiques, perception du risque par les investisseurs, lieu d’implantation…) dont les impacts sont plus ou moins importants. Afin d’objectiver ces baisses de coûts et de publier des chiffres représentatifs des conditions de développement françaises, l’ADEME réalise ce document présentant les plages de variations des coûts de production actuels de chaque filière en France, pour la production de chaleur et d’électricité renouvelables.


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