Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (lundi 29 mai 2017)

Un modèle énergétique en transition ? Centralisme et décentralisation dans la régulation du système énergétique / Benoit Boutaud. Thèse Aménagement de l’espace et Urbanisme. Université Paris-Est, 12 octobre 2016, 495 p.  https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01524555

La question de la transition énergétique se situe aujourd’hui en haut de l’agenda politique. L’objectif de cette thèse est de s’interroger sur l’émergence d’un nouveau modèle électrique, de déterminer quelles sont ses caractéristiques et s’il représente une alternative au modèle centralisé. En combinant trois perspectives d’analyse – institutionnelle, technologique et territoriale –, elle démontre que ce modèle centralisé a vécu. Un faisceau de changements a transformé en profondeur le système électrique dans sa matérialité et son organisation : libéralisation, production distribuée, décentralisation politique, etc. La nouvelle configuration qui s’élabore est hybride. Elle est le résultat de tensions entre d’un côté des innovations porteuses de changements sociotechniques importants et de l’autre des mécanismes de centralisation politico-administrative et de concentration technico-économique.L’État a perdu son hégémonie mais pas sa centralité, alors même que le secteur s’est diversifié[…]

What matters in residential energy consumption ? Evidence from France / Anna Risch & Claire Salmon. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 2017, vol. 40, n° 1/2, pp. 79-116 http://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJGEI.2017.080767 ; Draft

Given objectives set by countries to realize energy-savings and decrease greenhouse gas emissions, an understanding of the main factors driving household energy consumption is crucial for the formulation of efficient policy measures. Our objective is to identify the main determinants of households energy consumption. The model incorporates a discrete/continuous decision framework, which allows for interactions between decisions on the heating system (the discrete choice) and decisions on the consumption of energy (the continuous choice). We have three main contributions. First, we explore the role of households’ socio-economic characteristics vs. technical properties of dwelling in explaining energy consumption. Second, we identify some of the main sources of energy conservation in the housing sector. Third, we estimate price-elasticity and income-elasticity in the French housing sector at a micro-level. Results show that the intensity of energy used per m² is almost completely determined by the technical properties of the dwelling and by the climate. The role of socio-demographic variables is particularly weak. This means that the challenge to environmental policies is to encourage households to undertake renovations.

Renewable Energy and Jobs – Annual Review 2017. Abu Dhabi : Irena, May 2017, 24 p. http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_RE_Jobs_Annual_Review_2017.pdf

The report presents the status of renewable energy employment, both by technology and in selected countries, over the past year. In this fourth edition, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) finds that renewable energy employed 9.8 million people around the world in 2016 – a 1.1% increase over 2015… lire la suite

Evidence of a Decline in Electricity Use by U.S. Households / Lucas Davis, Economics Bulletin, 2017, 37(2), 1098-1105. (E2e WP-030)

This paper shows that U.S. households use less electricity than they did five years ago. The decrease has been experienced broadly, in virtually all U.S. states and across all seasons of the year. This pattern stands in sharp contrast to steady increases throughout previous decades and has significant implications for household budgets, energy markets, and the environment. I discuss some of the implications of the decline and then take preliminary steps toward identifying potential explanations. While multiple factors have contributed, I argue that the rapid emergence of LEDs and other energy-efficient lighting has played a particularly important role.


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