Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (18 juillet 2017)

Renewable Energy Statistics 2017. Abu Dhabi : Irena, 2017, 344 p. http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_Renewable_Energy_Statistics_2017.pdf

The yearbook shows data on renewable power-generation capacity, renewable power generation and renewable energy balances. The new yearbook also features statistics on investments in renewable energy from 18 major multi-lateral, bilateral and national development financial institutions.

Financing the Energy Transition: Are World Bank, IFC, and ADB Energy Supply Investments Supporting a Low-Carbon Future? / Giulia Christianson, Allison Lee, Gaia Larsen ans Shirley Green. World Resources Institute (WRI), June 2017, 48 p. http://www.wri.org/publication/financing-the-energy-transition

This working paper provides a first-cut assessment of how the energy supply investments of the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), and Asian Development Bank (ADB) align with the Paris Agreement goal to limit global temperature rise to well below 2°C.

Le paysage des énergies renouvelables en Europe en 2030 / Michel Cruciani. Paris : Ifri, juin 2017, 51 p. http://www.ifri.org/fr/publications/etudes-de-lifri/paysage-energies-renouvelables-europe-2030

Cette étude analyse les règles européennes destinées à promouvoir les énergies renouvelables, en pointant leurs nouveautés et les difficultés qu’elles soulèvent. Elle souligne les conséquences de certaines des mesures envisagées et accorde une attention particulière au marché de l’électricité.

Smart Grids and Renewable Electricity Generation by Households / Prudence Dato, Tunç Durmaz, Aude Pommeret. May 2017, 34 p. FAERE Working Paper, 2017.09. http://faere.fr/pub/WorkingPapers/Dato_Durmaz_Pommeret_FAERE_WP2017.09.pdf

The aim of the study is to analyze investments in intermittent renewable energy and energy storage by a household (HH). The novelty of our model accrues from the flexibility it assigns to a HH infeeding (purchasing) electricity to (from) the grid or storing energy from renewable energy installations. We study the consequences of demand-side management for a HH by accounting for three levels of equipment in smart grids. The first level refers to the possibility of feeding electricity to the grid, which can be achieved relatively simply by net metering. The second level concerns the installation of smart meters. The third level relates to energy storage. We analyze decisions concerning photovoltaic system and energy storage investments, and the consequences of energy storage and smart meters for electricity consumption and purchases of electricity from the grid. Additionally, we study the desirability of a smart meter installation and the implications of curtailment measures for avoiding congestion. Our results indicate that dynamic tariffs, which should encourage HHs to use the power system efficiently and, thus, to save energy, can lead to more reliance on the grid. Thus, the dynamic tariff structure needs to be carefully planned.

Electricity supply reliability and households decision to connect to the grid / Arnaud Millien. Centre d’Economie de la Sorbonne, mai 2017, 44 p. (working paper 2017.31) https://hal-paris1.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01551097v1

The 7th Sustainable Development Goal aims to « ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all ». Because the cost to increase electrical capacity in Africa alone has been estimated at $800bn, this article investigates the extent to which electricity reliability could contribute to a reduction in the marginal cost of grid extension by attracting more customers. Using lightning as an instrument for outages severity, the article evaluates the assumption that less uncertainty about electricity availability would lead to a larger number of connected households. The article finds that a one percentage point increase in electricity reliability would yield a 0.67 percentage point increase in connections. Therefore, delivering fully reliable electrical power would allow an electricity company to achieve its targeted growth of customer base 15 months earlier than planned. The effect of reliability is highest for middle-rich households, which are the most reluctant to subscribe in the presence of total, severe or partial outages. A one-percentage-point upgrade in reliability increase the likelihood that these households will be connected by 1.28 percentage points.
This article also finds that households are more sensitive to outages in areas where outages are less frequent. In addition, the impact of reliability on households decision to connect could be at least 5% greater than the effect of poverty ; if the frequency of outages is too high, the wealth or poverty effect might vanish and households would respond only to the excessively low reliability. These results confirm the uncertainty assumption, that is, regular and severe outages yield an uninsurable context that deters households from subscribing to the electric service.

Climate Change and Renewable Energy Generation in Africa / B.O.K. Lokonon and A.O. Salami. Abidjan : African Development Bank, June 2017, 25 p. (Working Paper Series N° 269) https://www.afdb.org/en/documents/document/working-paper-269-climate-change-and-renewable-energy-generation-in-africa-96585/

This paper contributes to the economics literature on renewable energy generation by investigating climate-change impacts on renewable energy generation in Africa (with special focus on hydropower generation as it is the main renewable source of power in the continent). The analysis includes 51 African countries over the period 1996-2012. The econometric approach consists of estimating a model of the determinants of hydroelectricity generation, using dynamic panel framework (system General Method of Moments). The findings suggest that lagged hydroelectricity generation and crude oil price are the main drivers of hydroelectricity generation. Flood occurrence appears to hamper hydroelectricity sector development. We advocate for international commitment in terms of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Moreover, African countries should continue investing in renewable energy technologies to achieve a low-carbon energy mix. Higher taxation or reduction in subsidies of crude oil based technologies could be beneficial to the development of the renewable energy sector.

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