Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (13/09/2017)

Alliance franco-allemande pour la transition énergétique européenne : les cas du secteur électrique et des transports / Dimitri Pescia, Matthias Buck, Nicolas Berghmans, Kerstin Meyer. Agora Energiewende – Iddri – Agora Verkehrswende, 2017, 12 p. http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Propositions-en-faveur-d-une-alliance-franco-allemande-pour-la-transition-energetique-europeenne

La France et l’Allemagne ont des objectifs climatiques communs et sont confrontés à des défis similaires dans la mise en place de leur transition énergétique. Ces similitudes méritent de s’inscrire dans une démarche commune qui pourrait prendre la forme d’une alliance énergétique stratégique visant à faciliter la voie vers une économie décarbonée et résiliente ; celle-ci pourrait en outre s’intégrer dans une initiative plus vaste de refondation du projet d’intégration européen.

World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2017 (WNISR2017) / Mycle Schneider and Antony Froggatt, et al. Paris, September 2017, 267 p. (A ©Mycle Schneider Consulting Project) https://www.worldnuclearreport.org/-2017-.html

[The report] provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. The WNISR2017 edition includes a new assessment from an equity analyst view of the financial crisis of the nuclear sector and some of its biggest industrial players. The Fukushima Status Report provides not only an update on onsite and offsite issues six years after the beginning of the catastrophe, but also the latest official and new independent cost evaluations of the disaster. Focus chapters provide in-depth analysis of France, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Nuclear Power vs Renewable Energy chapter provides global comparative data on investment, capacity, and generation from nuclear, wind and solar energy. Finally, Annex 1 presents a country-by-country overview of all other countries operating nuclear power plants… lire la suite

Energy burden alleviation and greenhouse gas emissions reduction: Can we reach two objectives with one policy ? / Charlier, D., Risch, A. & Salmon, C., Ecological Economics, vol. 143, Jan. 2018, pp. 294-313  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800915305498

In this article, we assess French current public policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and abate household energy burden, through a simulation of changes in residential sector characteristics over the long run. We build on an existing partial equilibrium model to take into consideration key determinants of excessive energy burden among vulnerable households. This analysis reveals that current public policies are not sufficient to reach the ambitious objectives for reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions in France.
Moreover, the decreases that might occur mask significant social disparities across households. The joint implementation of multiple instruments leads to interactions that diminish overall policy outcomes. Overall, current public policies produce estimated free-riding rates of 75%. Energy efficiency measures are thus insufficient in themselves; the government should focus more on monetary poverty as a cause of low home improvement rates and consider subsidizing renovation costs as a potential solution.

Tracking sectoral progress in the deep decarbonisation of energy systems in Europe / Spencer, T., Pierfederici, R., Sartor, O., Berghmans, N., Samadi, S., Fischedick, M., Knoop, K., Pye, S., Criqui, P., Mathy, S., Capros, P., Fragkos, P., Bukowski, M., Sniegocki, A., Virdis, M. R., Gaeta, M., Pollier, K. & Cassisa, C., Energy Policy, vol. 110, pp. 509-517  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421517305517

Decarbonisation of energy systems requires deep structural change. The purpose of this research was to analyse the rates of change taking place in the energy systems of each Member State of the European Union (EU), and the EU in aggregate, in the light of the EU’s climate change mitigation objectives. Trends on indicators such as sectoral activity levels and composition, energy intensity, and carbon intensity of energy were compared with decadal benchmarks derived from deep decarbonisation scenarios. The methodology applied provides a useful and informative approach to tracking decarbonisation of energy systems. The results show that while the EU has made significant progress in decarbonising its energy system. On a number of indicators assessed the results show that a significant acceleration from historical levels is required in order to reach the rates of change seen on the future benchmarks for deep decarbonisation. The methodology applied provides an example of how the research community and international organisations could complement the transparency mechanism developed by the Paris Agreement on climate change, to improve understanding of progress toward low-carbon energy systems.

North–south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming / Leonie Wenz, Anders Levermann and Maximilian Auffhammer, PNAS, August 28, 2017, 9 p.  http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/08/22/1704339114

There is growing empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change will substantially affect the electric sector. Impacts will stem both from the supply side—through the mitigation of greenhouse gases—and from the demand side—through adaptive responses to a changing environment. Here we provide evidence of a polarization of both peak load and overall electricity consumption under future warming for the world’s third-largest electricity market—the 35 countries of Europe. We statistically estimate country-level dose–response functions between daily peak/total electricity load and ambient temperature for the period 2006–2012. After removing the impact of nontemperature confounders and normalizing the residual load data for each country, we estimate a common dose–response function, which we use to compute national electricity loads for temperatures that lie outside each country’s currently observed temperature range. To this end, we impose end-of-century climate on today’s European economies following three different greenhouse-gas concentration trajectories, ranging from ambitious climate-change mitigation—in line with the Paris agreement—to unabated climate change. We find significant increases in average daily peak load and overall electricity consumption in southern and western Europe (∼3 to ∼7% for Portugal and Spain) and significant decreases in northern Europe (∼−6 to ∼−2% for Sweden and Norway). While the projected effect on European total consumption is nearly zero, the significant polarization and seasonal shifts in peak demand and consumption have important ramifications for the location of costly peak-generating capacity, transmission infrastructure, and the design of energy-efficiency policy and storage capacity.

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