Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (jeudi 14 septembre 2017)

L’élaboration d’une politique publique environnementale, le Bilan Carbone®. Entretien avec Thomas Gourdon, de l’Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Énergie (ADEME) / Morgane Le breton et Frédérique Pallez, Gérer et comprendre, n° 129, septembre 2017 http://www.annales.org/gc/2017/gc129/GC-129-Article-LE_BRETON-PALLEZ.pdf

La lutte contre les émissions de gaz à effet de serre est au cœur des politiques de lutte contre le changement climatique. Bien avant la COP21 qui a médiatisé ces thématiques à l’automne 2015, des politiques de lutte contre les émissions de GES s’étaient développées, notamment en Europe, via la mise en place d’un marché du carbone en 2005. L’histoire que nous allons raconter concerne un autre dispositif, le Bilan carbone®, outil très utilisé de comptabilisation des émissions de GES des organisations (tant publiques que privées)…

Fiscal Policy for Decarbonization of Energy in Europe / David Robinson with annexes by Malcolm Keay and Klaus Hammes. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, September 2017, 52 p. (OIES paper : EL 22) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/fiscal-policy-decarbonization-energy-europe/

Decarbonization policy has focused thus far on low hanging fruit, especially energy efficiency and renewables. Attention will need to move to other sectors, especially transport and buildings, which together account for about 60% of energy-related carbon emissions in the EU. Consumers will be active participants and at the centre of this energy transition. This reinforces the importance of minimizing energy pricing distortions, including those due to fiscal policy.

This report argues that fiscal policy may act as a barrier to the decarbonisation of transport and buildings. This is due to levies on electricity that have risen substantially since 2008, primarily but not exclusively to finance renewable power development whose costs could not be recovered through markets. The higher the penetration of renewable energy, the higher the levies on electricity and the less competitive it becomes by comparison to the fossil fuels. The report also argues that, even if the fiscal policy barrier were eliminated, electrification would be only one competing option among others.

The report proposes guidelines for energy sector fiscal reform that will be aligned with efficient decarbonisation Fiscal policy should, inter alia: be technology neutral after internalizing environmental externalities; finance the extra cost of renewables and other public goods through government taxation raised in the least distorting ways consistent with distributional objectives; and be part of a comprehensive revenue-neutral fiscal reform.

Fiscal policy is only one of the policy instruments that governments have at their disposal and it is often not the most important one. However, fiscal reform is a relatively easy and quick way of starting to move in the right direction and of reducing the risk of getting stuck with the wrong sort of investment that will lock in high carbon intensity.

Energy burden alleviation and greenhouse gas emissions reduction: Can we reach two objectives with one policy ? / Charlier, D., Risch, A. & Salmon, C., Ecological Economics, vol. 143, Jan. 2018, pp. 294-313  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800915305498

In this article, we assess French current public policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and abate household energy burden, through a simulation of changes in residential sector characteristics over the long run. We build on an existing partial equilibrium model to take into consideration key determinants of excessive energy burden among vulnerable households. This analysis reveals that current public policies are not sufficient to reach the ambitious objectives for reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions in France.
Moreover, the decreases that might occur mask significant social disparities across households. The joint implementation of multiple instruments leads to interactions that diminish overall policy outcomes. Overall, current public policies produce estimated free-riding rates of 75%. Energy efficiency measures are thus insufficient in themselves; the government should focus more on monetary poverty as a cause of low home improvement rates and consider subsidizing renovation costs as a potential solution.

Tracking sectoral progress in the deep decarbonisation of energy systems in Europe / Spencer, T., Pierfederici, R., Sartor, O., Berghmans, N., Samadi, S., Fischedick, M., Knoop, K., Pye, S., Criqui, P., Mathy, S., Capros, P., Fragkos, P., Bukowski, M., Sniegocki, A., Virdis, M. R., Gaeta, M., Pollier, K. & Cassisa, C., Energy Policy, vol. 110, pp. 509-517  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421517305517

Decarbonisation of energy systems requires deep structural change. The purpose of this research was to analyse the rates of change taking place in the energy systems of each Member State of the European Union (EU), and the EU in aggregate, in the light of the EU’s climate change mitigation objectives. Trends on indicators such as sectoral activity levels and composition, energy intensity, and carbon intensity of energy were compared with decadal benchmarks derived from deep decarbonisation scenarios. The methodology applied provides a useful and informative approach to tracking decarbonisation of energy systems. The results show that while the EU has made significant progress in decarbonising its energy system. On a number of indicators assessed the results show that a significant acceleration from historical levels is required in order to reach the rates of change seen on the future benchmarks for deep decarbonisation. The methodology applied provides an example of how the research community and international organisations could complement the transparency mechanism developed by the Paris Agreement on climate change, to improve understanding of progress toward low-carbon energy systems.

Accélérer la décarbonation : vers un prix minimum du CO2 pour l’électricité en Europe de l’Ouest / Alain Grandjean, Sébastien Timsit, Jeannou Durtol, Antoine Guillou, Émilie Alberola, Charlotte Vailles. Terra Nova, 30/08/2017, 31 p. http://tnova.fr/notes/accelerer-la-decarbonation-vers-un-prix-minimum-du-co2-pour-l-electricite-en-europe-de-l-ouest

Avec l’annonce du futur retrait des États-Unis de l’accord de Paris et la reprise effective du leadership du sujet climat par l’Europe et par la France en particulier, le moment apparaît opportun pour lancer des mesures courageuses afin de lutter plus fortement contre le changement climatique. L’objectif de cette note est de présenter une mesure fondée sur l’instauration d’un prix minimum du CO2 pour le secteur de l’électricité dans plusieurs pays volontaires–la France et l’Allemagne en premier lieu – visant à décarboner la production européenne d’électricité.


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