Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (5/01/2018)

Concilier ressources in situ et grands réseaux : une lecture des proximités par la notion de nœud socio-énergétique / Gilles Debizet et Antoine Tabourdeau, Flux – Cahiers scientifiques internationaux Réseaux et territoires, Université Paris-Est Marne la Vallée 2017, n° 109-110, pp. 87-101 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01674469

L’imbrication entre villes et réseaux prend des contours substantiellement nouveaux avec le développement des énergies renouvelables et conduit à de nouveaux agencements. Avec l’essor de l’autoproduction, les relations entre les réseaux d’énergie et les lieux s’organisent dorénavant à différentes échelles dans les espaces urbanisés. Il émerge des organisations intermédiaires hybridant les flux issus de réseaux publics avec ceux des énergies renouvelables capturées in situ. Considérant le système énergétique urbain comme un assemblage de NSE – nœuds socio-énergétiques –, cet article recense quatre NSE-types que les organisations intermédiaires sont susceptibles de connecter. Chacun combine plus ou moins, et de façon spécifique, proximité spatiale et organisée.

Designing an electricity wholesale market to accommodate significant renewables penetration: Lessons from Britain / David Newbery. Cambridge : Energy Policy Research Group, December 2017, 23 p. https://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/eprg-working-paper-1719/

The wholesale market has to address two major market failures – inadequate carbon prices in the EU ETS, and the learning externalities and missing futures markets for energy and ancillary services needed to guide flexible dispatchable plant. The paper discusses the importance of locational price signals to guide investment, the need to reform transmission pricing and renewables support. the case for capacity auctions for renewables and quantifies the justifiable level of renewables support. These proposals are consistent with the EU Clean Energy Package, but the nature of the renewables target and its financing should change.

Regulating the Electricity System Operator: Lessons for Great Britain from around the world / Karim Anaya and Michael Pollitt. Cambridge : Energy Policy Research Group, December 2017, 34 p. https://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/eprg-working-paper-1718/

This study explores the international experience with independent sys-tem operators (ISOs) with respect to the incentives that system operators face to operate the electricity network efficiently (from the point of view of society). We look for lessons that we can learn from this experience for the future regulation of the Great Britain (GB) System Op-erator (National Grid Electricity Transmission). We examine seven ISOs from the USA, where the model seems to be successful but with some cost issues within the system operator itself. We also examine system operators from Australia (AEMO), Chile (SIC/SING) and Peru (COES). Our findings are supported by a short survey that was sent directly to our contacts in the system operators from our sample of ISOs.
Against a background of rising distributed renewable generation on the electricity system, we discuss the international experience of ISOs with respect to their incentives to: maximise social welfare; manage the increasing amount of renewables and new participants; manage their overall actions for customers; engage in stakeholder participation and transparency.

Nord Stream 2 and the EU Regulatory Framework: Challenges Ahead / Jerzy Dudek and Andris Piebalgs. Florence School of Regulation, October 2017, 8 p. (Policy Briefs; 2017/26) http://cadmus.eui.eu//handle/1814/48386

Highlights: • An approach towards Nord Stream 2 (NS2) will set a precedent for other new pipelines importing gas from third countries into EU. • The EU-part of NS2 should follow rules of the Third Energy Package and the non-EU part of NS2 could either be subject to EU law by territorial extension or be governed by an EU-Russia agreement relating to the whole pipeline. The latter would need to be in line with the EU Treaties, which explicitly place an obligation on the EU to ‘ensure security of energy supply’ and ‘ensure the functioning of the energy market’. • Gas Market Directive should apply to the part of NS2 that is located in the EU territory. It requires a full liberalisation regime, and it remains unclear if derogations from the regime are possible. The EU part and the non-EU part of NS2 are legally connected and regulating one part influences the other. In case of lack of an EU-Russia international agreement, the non-EU part of NS2 could be subject to EU law through a territorial extension, which is widespread in EU law. • NS2 will have a substantial impact on the current arrangements for the gas security of supply. New stress tests are necessary to assess the measures needed to mitigate the impact of NS2 on the security of supply. • NS2 will impede competition in the EU energy market and will deter necessary investments in the gas infrastructure. The existing divide between Western and Eastern markets will be deepened, and the cost for the EU of establishing a well-interconnected market will significantly increase. The final settlement of the EU antimonopoly investigation against Gazprom should find remedies for these market challenges.

Nord Stream 2: Friend or enemy of energy security in Europe? / Alex Barnes. CEPS, Dec. 2017, 7 p. (Policy insights ; No 2017/46) https://www.ceps.eu/publications/nord-stream-2-friend-or-enemy-energy-security-europe

Nord Stream 2 is criticised on grounds that it undermines the functioning of the European gas market and makes European gas consumers worse off. Its critics also claim that the project has no economic rationale, would reduce security of supply, weaken European solidarity and the Energy Union, and also destabilise Ukraine. This CEPS Policy Insight, contributed by a Nord Stream 2 AG market expert, attempts to counter these criticisms by presenting recent economic analysis bearing on these matters. It explains how Nord Stream 2 cannot undermine the European gas market because of the rules already in place. It concludes that the project will be beneficial to European gas consumers by strengthening gas-to-gas competition between piped gas and LNG for supply to the EU. It also finds that fears that Nord Stream 2 will further destabilise Ukraine are exaggerated and sees a continued role of the country in gas transit to the EU.

Les révolutions de la mobilité : dossier, L’Économie politique, n° 76, 2017/4 https://www.cairn.info/revue-l-economie-politique-2017-4.htm
  • Transport : une approche d’économie politique / Michel Savy
  • Economie de la vitesse : Ivan Illich revisité / Yves Crozet
  • De l’automobile aux services de mobilité / Gabriel Plassat
  • Logistique et transport de marchandises dans les grandes métropoles / Laetitia Dablanc
  • Quelle tarification des infrastructures de transport ? / Corinne Blanquart
  • Le métro du Grand Paris en débat / Entretiens avec Jean-Claude Prager, et Jean-Pierre Orfeuil
  • Investir dans les réseaux de transport : quelles priorités ? L’expérience de Mobilité 21 / Philippe Duron
Transforming Energy Efficiency Markets: Lessons Learned and Next Steps / Dan York, Hannah Bastian, Grace Relf, and Jennifer Amann. American Council for an Energy-Efficent Economy, Dec. 2017, 84 p. (Research Report U1715) http://aceee.org/research-report/u1715

Market transformation is a program model for achieving long-lasting changes in targeted markets to increase shares of energy-efficient products and services. This report examines recent market transformation efforts to identify keys to successful programs and the challenges they face. We characterize the markets best suited to this model, identify effective steps and interventions, and present ten case studies that illustrate best practices. Finally, we describe areas with the greatest potential for future market transformation and recommend ways to move forward.

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