Climate and carbon : Aligning prices and policies
Climate and carbon : Aligning prices and policies. Paris : OECD, October 2013, 57 p. (OECD environment policy paper ; n° 1)
Abstract (© OECD) :
The international community has agreed to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2ºC above pre-industrial levels. This will require a gradual phase-out of fossil fuel emissions by the second half of this century. This report brings together lessons learned from OECD analysis on carbon pricing and climate policies. It recommends that governments ensure coherent policies surrounding the gradual phase-out of fossil fuel emissions and consistent signals to consumers, producers and investors alike. A key component of this approach is putting an explicit price on every tonne of CO2 emitted. Explicit pricing instruments, however, may not cover all sources of emissions and will often need to be complemented by other policies that effectively put an implicit price on emissions. But the policies must be mutually supportive and as cost-effective as possible, both on their own and as a package. In addition, tax exemptions and fossil-fuel subsidies that undermine the transition towards zero carbon solutions must be reformed. Finally, the report highlights the issues of competitiveness, distributional impacts and communication as key elements in implementing climate policy reform.