Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (lundi 28 septembre 2015)

Local and Global Pollution and International Environmental Agreements in a Network Approach / Michael Günther Tim Hellmanny. Bielefeld : Center for Mathematical Economics (IMW), 3/09/2015 40 p.

Increasing concerns about climate change have given rise to the formation of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) as a possible solution to limit global pollution effects. In this paper, we study the stability of IEAs in a repeated game framework where we restrict to strategies which are simple and invariant to renegotiation. Our main contribution to the literature on IEAs is that we allow for heterogeneous patterns of pollution such that additional to a global effect of pollution there are local pollution effects represented by a network structure. We show that stable IEAs exist if the network structure is balanced. Too large asymmetries in the degree of local spillovers may however lead to non-existence of stable structures. The generality of our approach allows for several applications to general problems in the provision of public goods.

Tout changer à la BCE pour que rien ne change dans le climat ? / Étienne Espagne, L’économie politique, n° 66, 2015, pp. 70-81

Comment financer la transition énergétique ? La réponse des économistes dépend de leur vision de la monnaie et de la finance. Parce que la monnaie n’est pas neutre, ni les marchés financiers efficients, la banque centrale doit se donner les moyens d’encourager les investissements bas carbone.

Négociations climat 2015 :accélérer ou freiner la transition énergétique ? /  Thomas Pellerin-Carlin et Jean-Arnold Vinois. Institut Jacques Delors, septembre 2015, 12 p. (policy paper ; 142)

Ce Policy paper de Jean-Arnold Vinois et de Thomas Pellerin-Carlin, vise à donner des propositions concrètes en direction des décideurs de l’UE pour faire de la COP21 une étape utile permettant l’atténuation du dérèglement climatique et l’adaptation à ce dernier.

Towards a New Climate Agreement: Principles and Practices for Implementation from a Sustainable Development Perspective / Katherine Lofts, et al. Centre for International Sustainable Development Law, sept.0 2015, 17 p.

At the upcoming 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21), Parties are set to conclude a new international agreement. This agreement will take the form of “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force”, and will be applicable to all UNFCCC Parties. It is currently being negotiated through a process known as the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP). The agreement will establish new mitigation commitments for Parties, as well as commitments on finance, adaptation, loss and damage (which may be included under adaptation or as a separate issue), technology development and transfer, and capacity building. It will take a partially “bottom up” approach, enabling Parties to determine their own mitigation commitments, potentially subject to review processes and other mechanisms to increase ambition. Law and governance systems can foster or frustrate efforts to implement the proposed 2015 climate agreement. In this background paper, the new climate agreement negotiating text is outlined, key principles are discussed, and legal issues raised by the text are identified and analyzed. It is recognized that law and governance will be essential to consider if Parties are to succeed in meeting their commitments. Indeed, a number of countries may decide to reform their laws and institutions in order to implement the new agreement, leading to a pressing need for legal knowledge, expertise and capacity building. Part 2 of the paper provides an overview of the draft climate agreement, examining the current components of the “Co-Chairs’ Tool”, including provisions for inclusion in a new agreement, provisions for inclusion in a COP decision, and provisions whose placement requires further clarity among Parties in relation to the draft agreement or draft decision. Part 3 examines the draft text from a sustainable development perspective. Finally, Part 4 places the draft agreement in its international legal context, examining how it might relate to existing human rights, environmental and economic agreements. (© K. Lofts)

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