Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (16/10/2015)

Electricity Markets and the Clean Power Plan / William W. Hogan, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, October 2015, 34 p. (Discussion Paper 2015-79, Harvard Project on Climate Agreements) http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/25891/electricity_markets_and_the_clean_power_plan.html

The Environmental Protection Agency issued a final rule that defines a broad and complicated set of standards for controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from affected electricity generating units. (Environmental Protection Agency, 2015b) The proposed national average reduction by 2030 is 32% from the 2005 level of emissions, about half of which has already occurred. (Environmental Protection Agency, 2015j) The rules for new power plants are relatively straightforward and imply little more than reinforcing the current economic choice of natural gas over coal fired generation, given current projections for the price of natural gas. The Clean Power Plan rules for existing power plants arise under a different section of the Clean Air Act and present a more complicated picture. The result has implications for the nature and degree of future limitations on carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity sector. In addition, some versions of the possible implementation plans could have material implications for the operations of Regional Transmission Organizations under the regulations of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The purpose here is to highlight some of the possible directions for relevant policies of electricity system operators.

S’approprier un problème public : les citoyens ordinaires face aux discours sur l’énergie / Jérémy Bouillet, doctorant en science politique au laboratoire PACTE (Grenoble) & au GRETS (EDF R&D, Clamart) – ATER Sciences Po Grenoble, 2015, 7 p. http://www.ifop.com/media/pressdocument/853-1-document_file.pdf

L’opinion publique sondée dans les grandes enquêtes témoigne de l’écart entre « pétitions de principe » et réalité au quotidien sur les questions d’énergie et d’environnement. Ce travail propose une explication de la manière dont les « citoyens ordinaires » intègrent des parties de discours sur les questions énergétiques, les ré-agencent et les prennent en compte ou non dans leur vie quotidienne, dans un jeu croisé de contraintes et de contradictions. Il s’appuie sur des données issues de forums en ligne dont l’un des intérêts est de proposer aux enquêtés des scènes d’expression dont la publicité varie, faisant ainsi apparaître des écarts entre les principes défendus en « public » montrant ce que la norme doit être, et les pratiques routinières décrites en « privé » ; de même ils permettent de faire apparaître des degrés de conflictualité liés aux divers aspects des enjeux énergétiques.

Europe’s LNG Strategy in the Wider EU Gas Market / Gergely Molnar, Arno Behrens, Christian Egenhofer and Fabio Genoese. CEPS, 8 October 2015, 8 p. (CEPS Policy Brief No. 33) http://www.ceps.eu/publications/europes-lng-strategy-wider-eu-gas-market

In its Communication on an Energy Union published in February 2015, the European Commission committed itself to “explore the full potential of liquefied natural gas (LNG), including as a back-up in crisis situations when insufficient gas is coming into Europe through the existing pipeline system” and to address the potential of gas storage in Europe by developing a comprehensive LNG and storage strategy by the end of 2015 or early in 2016. This is a comprehensible move in the current context. Geopolitical tensions between the EU and Russia explain the EU’s willingness to further diversify its supply sources of natural gas to reinforce its long-term energy security on the one hand, and to strengthen its ability to solve future crises on the other hand. Moreover, the current market dynamics could support diversification towards LNG. Increasing the flexibility of LNG trade, decreasing LNG prices and LNG charter rates and an apparent price convergence between the European and the Asia-Pacific LNG imports would all reinforce the economic viability of such a strategy.


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