Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (19 octobre 2015)
Panorama de l’électricité renouvelable au 30 juin 2015. RTE, octobre 2015, 60 p. http://www.rte-france.com/fr/actualite/panorama-de-l-electricite-renouvelable-le-developpement-des-energies-renouvelables-sur-les
Les filières éolienne et photovoltaïque sont celles qui contribuent le plus à la croissance des énergies renouvelables (EnR) électriques, avec 1913 MW installés du 1er juillet 2014 au 30 juin 2015. Ces deux filières représentent désormais un tiers des capacités de production d’EnRen France. La puissance du parc de production d’électricité renouvelable en France métropolitaine s’élève à 42 582 MW, dont 60% est issue du parc hydraulique. Du 1er juillet 2014 au 30 juin 2015, les énergies renouvelables ont couvert 19,3 % de la consommation électrique française.
Natural Gas Prices and Coal Displacement: Evidence from Electricity Markets / Christopher R. Knittel, Konstantinos Metaxoglou & Andre Trindade. NBER Working Paper No. 21627, October 2015, 45 p. Draft : http://web.mit.edu/knittel/www/papers/Coal_latest.pdf
We examine the environmental impact of the post-2005 natural gas glut in the United States due to the shale gas boom. Our focus is on quantifying short-term coal-to-gas switching decisions by different types of electric power plants in response to changes in the relative price of the two fuels. In particular, we study the following entities: investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and independent power producers (IPPs) in restructured markets coordinated by Independent System Operators, as well as IOUs in traditional vertically-integrated markets. Using alternative data aggregations and model specifications, we find that IOUs operating in traditional markets are more sensitive to changes in fuel prices than both IOUs and IPPs in restructured markets. We attribute our findings to differences in available gas-fired generating capacity with the most cost-efficient technology: electricity generators reduced their rate of investment in the restructured markets post restructuring. The heterogeneity in the response of fuel consumption to prices has implications for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the entities considered. Using simple back-of-the-envelope calculations, the almost 70% drop in the price of natural gas between June 2008 and the end of 2012 translates to as much as 33% reduction in CO2 emissions for IOUs in traditional markets, but only up to 19% for IOUs in restructured markets.
Oil and Gas Revenue Allocation to Local Governments in Eight States / Richard G. Newell & Daniel Raimi. NBER Working Paper No. 21615, October 2015, 69 p. Draft : http://energy.duke.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/Oil%20Gas%20Revenue%20Allocation%20to%20Local%20Government%20FINAL.pdf
This report examines how oil and gas production generates revenue for local governments in eight states through four key mechanisms: (i) state taxes or fees on oil and gas production; (ii) local property taxes on oil and gas property; (iii) leasing of state-owned land; and (iv) leasing of federally-owned land. To compare across states, we show the percentage of total revenue generated by oil and gas production that flows to local governments from these revenue sources. We also connect these calculations to related research to assess whether state and local policies are providing sufficient revenue for local governments to manage increased costs associated with shale development. We find that in most cases, existing policies appear to provide adequate revenue for local governments to manage increased costs associated with growing oil and gas activity. As of 2014, revenues fall short of the costs imposed on local governments in some highly rural regions experiencing rapid, large-scale development, notably the Bakken region of North Dakota and Montana, select counties in Texas, and select local governments in Colorado and Wyoming. Collaboration between industry and local governments, especially on road repairs, could reduce public costs.
How Governing International Trade in Energy Can Enhance EU Energy Security / Rafael Leal-Arcas, Queen Mary University of London – School of Law, Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 202-219, 2015 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2674064
Energy security, or the access to energy at an affordable price, is one of the main problems that humanity faces today and the European Union (EU) has to rely on energy-rich countries for its energy needs. This paper offers four ways in which the EU may enhance its energy security through the international trading system.