Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (2/12/2015)
Progress towards good practice policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions : Initial results from an analysis of the status of climate related policies in 30 countries /
Niklas Höhne, Hanna Fekete, Takeshi Kuramochi, Gabriela Iacobuta, Lukas Prinz, New Climate Institute, December 2015, 61 p. Report: http://newclimate.org/2015/12/01/good-practice-policies/ – Database: http://climatepolicydatabase.org/ (Beta)
This study compared recommendations for good practice climate change mitigation policies from various institutions with the current status of application of these policies by countries. In an initial attempt, a broad set of climate mitigation-related policies covering all sectors were analysed for the 30 major emitting countries that comprise 82% of global GHG emissions.
Delivering Results-Based Funding Through Crediting Mechanisms – Assessment of Key Design Options / Lambert Schneider, Randall Spalding-Fecher & Martin Cames. Öko-Institut e.V., November 2015, 66 p. http://www.oeko.de/en/publications/download/2443/2015-600-en.pdf
This study explores how results-based funding could be delivered effectively by using tools and processes of crediting mechanisms. The study focuses on key design aspects for programmes using crediting mechanisms, including the suitability of using crediting mechanisms to deliver results-based funding, achieving a high mitigation impact, fostering transformational change, ensuring environmental and social safeguards, and avoiding double counting of efforts.
L’économie circulaire, une trajectoire clé pour la lutte contre le dérèglement climatique / Vincent Aurez, Adrian Tan, Adrian Deboutière,et al. Institut de l’Economie Circulaire, Ernst and Young, 80 pages, 2015 http://www.institut-economie-circulaire.fr/attachment/606665
Cette étude dresse une typologie des rôles que peut jouer l’économie circulaire dans les stratégies bas carbone des pays développés et en développement. Une contribution originale de Walter Stahel en introduction permet de poser les bases et les enjeux d’une vision de l’économie au prisme de la lutte contre le dérèglement climatique. L’Institut et EY proposent 10 solutions concrètes, applicables à court ou moyen terme, et ayant des impacts majeurs sur la réduction de nos émissions de gaz à effet de serre. L’étude entend ainsi montrer que l’économie circulaire pourrait contribuer pleinement à l’agenda des solutions de la COP21.
Opportunities for and Alternatives to Global Climate Regimes Post-Kyoto / Michaelowa, Axel. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 40, pp.395-417, November 2015. http://www.annualreviews.org/eprint/MsRN73XyDvNRXuWn9jzt/full/10.1146/annurev-environ-102014-021112
Key points : 1. The global public good characteristics of climate change mitigation make it a wicked problem and lead to free riding by governments. Adaptation is less of a public good but has characteristics that have limited its role in international climate policy ; 2. The UNFCCC started as a top-down process, culminating in the Kyoto Protocol, but since 2009 has developed toward a bottom-up regime owing to the reduced political salience of climate change issues ; 3. The Kyoto Protocol’s market mechanisms have been utilized intensively and unexpectedly harnessed a wide range of mitigation technologies in many developing countries ; 4. None of the government-only alternatives to the UNFCCC has achieved significant mitigation contributions, but they may have contributed to the transparency of emissions by various levels of government and the private sector ; 5. A top-down regime has the advantage of high transparency and common rules for implementing mechanisms for the minimization of mitigation costs, but it is currently not politically feasible ; 6. A bottom-up regime is politically feasible but unlikely to go beyond business-as-usual approaches in a significant manner, unless a club of countries forms that pushes mitigation. Moreover, it reduces transparency and increases transaction costs ; 7. Because a stringent top-down regime is not feasible and because of the ineffective goals set by bottom-up regimes, the 2◦C target is very likely out of reach. A temperature increase of 3◦C or more by the end of this century becomes more and more likely ; 8. If impacts of hydrometeorological extreme events become politically unbearable, policy makers will be tempted to engage in Solar Radiation Management, with the risk of significant side effects and strong challenges to international governance.