Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (1/03/2016)

La régulation asymétrique : un mécanisme de financement des coûts échoués irrécupérables / Cédric Clastres. Revue d’économie politique, vol. 126, n° 1, 2016, pp. 89-126 site de la revue ; lien vers le draft sur Hal

Les régulations asymétriques modifient les contextes réglementaires et concurrentiels des industries de réseaux. L’efficacité économique, la collusion ou le financement des coûts échoués irrécupérables sont autant de questions qui émergent avec ces mesures réglementaires. Les régulateurs se doivent d’adapter leur politique de régulation afin d’internaliser ces questions et de maximiser le welfare. Nous montrons à l’aide d’un modèle oligopolistique « à la Cournot » qu’il est possible pour un régulateur de financer les coûts échoués irrécupérables et de conserver l’efficacité productive. Le succès de cette politique dépend de l’efficacité de l’OH et du prix des sources alternatives d’approvisionnement.

Demand response policies for the implementation of smart grids / Elta Koliou. Doctoral thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2016, 247 p. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:906745/FULLTEXT01.pdf

The European Commission is in need of coherent and consistent set of policies and measures which will bring Europe into a new energy era of sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. Accordingly, the smart grids vision launched in 2006 in a movement towards reforming and modernizing electricity markets and networks in a bold and visionary program of research, development and demonstration. On this foundation, the European Union is taking a user-centric stance to developing smart grid systems as “electricity networks that can intelligently integrate the behavior and actions of all users connected to it generators, consumers, and those that do both in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies1”. Smart grids for Europe employ both products and services in combination with ICT to meet the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century.

Russian gas transit across Ukraine post-2019: pipeline scenarios, gas flow consequences, and regulatory constraints / Simon Pirani and Katja Yafimava. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Feb. 2016, 81 p. (OIES paper ;  NG 105) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/russian-gas-transit-across-ukraine-post-2019-pipeline-scenarios-gas-flow-consequences-and-regulatory-constraints/

The future of the transportation of Russian gas to Europe is wide open. The role of Ukraine, historically the main transit corridor, will change after the current transit contract between Gazprom and Naftogaz Ukrainy expires on 31 December 2019. Gazprom has already substantially reduced the volumes of gas it transits across Ukraine, and expressed its intention of reducing the level further by means of transit diversification pipelines (Nord Stream, Turkish Stream, etc). While that strategy is broadly supported by the largest purchasers of Russian gas in Europe, in Brussels there is political opposition, in addition to regulatory barriers to the pipeline projects. Tensions over these issues have risen sharply as a result of the Ukrainian political crisis of 2014, the annexation of Crimea, and the resulting deterioration of Russia-Ukraine and Russia-Europe political relations. In contrast to the wealth of commentary that has appeared about the political issues, this paper focuses on the natural gas trade itself. It includes scenarios that allow a comparison of Gazprom’s long-term contractual commitments with possible gas flows in the 2020s through existing and possible future pipeline networks; it considers the regulatory issues and obstacles to building new large scale infrastructure of the kind Gazprom proposes; and it looks at the possible commercial and contractual frameworks for future gas transit across, and gas supply to, Ukraine.

The UK in the EU – Stay or Leave? The balance sheet on energy and climate policy / David Buchan and Malcolm Keay. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Feb. 2016, 6 p. (Oxford energy comment) http://www.oxfordenergy.org/2016/02/the-uk-in-the-eu-stay-or-leave-the-balance-sheet-on-energy-and-climate-policy/

Energy may not be the biggest issue in the impending referendum on the UK’s EU membership. However, energy policy is increasingly being developed at EU level and the EU is aiming to achieve a full ‘Energy Union’, so it is important for those with an interest in energy and decarbonisation to understand the arguments, and to assess the various claims (some potentially misleading) being made about the implications of Brexit for energy. This Comment examines the various factors involved.

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