Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (17 mars 2016)
Le climat comme fait socio-environnemental total, une analyse à chaud de la COP 21 / Jean Foyer. Institut des Sciences de la Communication (CNRS/UPMC/Paris IV), 2016, 11 p. https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01286351
Lors de la dernière COP21 organisée à Paris, nous avons contribué à coordonner un projet original de recherche collaborative1 dont l’objectif était de couvrir, avec l’aide d’une vingtaine de chercheurs, les différents espaces sociaux et physiques à travers lesquels s’étendait la COP. Autour des négociations au Bourget qui ont constitué en quelque sorte le noyau central, un nombre considérable de présentations, de discussions, d’expositions ont gravité pour composer l’ensemble de l’événement COP21…
Cost benefit analysis and the environment : How to best cover impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services / Anil Markandya. Paris : OECD, 2016, 41 p. (OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 101) http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/workingpaper/5jm2f6w8b25l-en
There are now a large number of valuation studies on the benefits of biodiversity and on ecosystem services, the services provided by different ecosystems (ESS). Both ideas have been used to elicit values from nature but in recent years the research community has focussed on ESS as the main organising framework, with some additional use of the biodiversity concept to value entities that have intrinsic value and are of an extraordinary nature. Estimates are available for the services from most habitats, by type of ecosystem service, usually expressed in USD per hectare per year. Coverage varies by habitat and region, as does the quality of the assessment, but it is possible now to carry out an estimation of changes in values for a number of ecosystem services a result of the introduction of a new policy or of a physical investment that modifies the ecosystem. While this is a positive development, there remain some issues to be resolved. One is the possibility of double-counting of services when using the standard categories of provisioning, regulating/supporting and cultural ESS. Regulating and supporting services are the basis of the provisioning services and so value estimates for the two cannot always be added up. For example, air pollution absorption is often valued using the cost of alternative ways of reducing the pollutants from the atmosphere while recreation is often valued in terms of willingness-to-pay (WTP) through stated preference methods.
Self-Differentiation of Countries’ Responsibilities Addressing Climate Change through Intended Nationally Determined Contributions / Kennedy Liti Mbeva and Pieter Pauw. Berlin : German Development Institute, 2016, 51 p. (Discussion Paper ; 4/2016) www.die-gdi.de/uploads/media/DP_4.2016.pdf
As a result of the United Nations (UN) climate negotiations in Warsaw in 2013, all countries were invited to submit a climate action plan – or “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution” (INDC) – as part of the preparations for the 2015 UN climate summit in Paris (COP21). The innovation of this instrument lies in the fact that it is universal (each country formulates one) and that they are formulated “bottom-up” (countries set their own priorities and ambitions). In theory, this stimulates countries’ selfdifferentiation of responsibilities and capabilities to address climate change. This paper analyses 159 INDCs on whether they advanced self-differentiation in the context of the notion of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR-RC). The analysis focuses on aspects beyond mitigation targets, including INDC sections on fairness / equity as well as INDC content on adaptation and climate finance.