Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (30/03/2016)

The Geopolitics of Energy, Journal of International Affairs,Vol. 69, No. 1, Fall/Winter 2015 http://jia.sipa.columbia.edu/the-geopolitics-of-energy/

  • Fueling Oil Scarcity: Produced Scarcity and the Sociopolitical Fate of Renewable Energy
  • The Impact of the U.S. Shale Boom in Africa
  • War and the Oil Price Cycle
  • Misperceiving U.S. Foreign Policy in the Gulf: Raising the Hidden Costs of U.S. Dependence on Oil
  • Poisoned by Gas: Domestic Networks and Energy Security Strategy in Ukraine
  • EU-Russia Gas Blue
  • China-Kazakhstan Energy Relations Between 1997 and 2012
  • Dynamics of Natural Gas Pricing: The Critical Need for a Natural Gas Hub in South Asia
  • Energy Security and Energy Risk Management

Renewable energy intermittency and its impact on thermal generation / Christoph Graf & Claudio Marcantonini. European University Institute, March 2016, 35 p. http://cadmus.eui.eu//handle/1814/39645

Electricity production from renewable sources generally displaces thermal generation, which leads to lower CO2 emissions in the power sector. However, the intermittent nature of many renewable technologies leads to greater inefficiencies in the operation of existing fossil power plants. This inefficiency translates into higher production costs as well as a higher rate of emissions relative to output. In this paper we focus on Italian power installations. Using panel econometrics, we show that a 10% increase in photovoltaics and wind infeed has reduced yearly CO2 emissions of the average thermal installation by about 4% while the average plants emissions relative to its output have increased by about 0.3% between 2005 and 2014. Given the additional inefficiency caused by intermittent renewables, our results suggest that the average installation actually only achieves around 94% of the expected reductions. The effect is more pronounced for installations that have not been retrofitted and for installations serving peak demand.

Feasible path toward 40–100% renewable energy shares for power supply in France by 2050: A prospective analysis / Vincent Krakowski, Edi Assoumou, Vincent Mazauric, Nadia Maïzi, Applied Energy, Vol. 171, 1 June 2016, Pages 501–522 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261916304251

This paper explores the conditions under which renewable energy sources (RES) penetration could jeopardize power system reliability, as well as which flexibility options could help integrate high levels of RES. For this purpose, we used an energy-planning model from the TIMES family, which provides a realistic representation of power systems and plausible options for their long-term development, completed by a thermodynamic description of power systems to assess their reliability. We applied this model to the case of France and built contrasted scenarios, from 0% to 100% renewable energy penetration by 2050. We also tested different assumptions on Variable Renewable Energy (VRE) production, imports, demand flexibility and biomass potential. We show that high renewable energy penetration would need significant investments in new capacities, new flexibility options along with imports and demand-response, and that it is likely to deteriorate power system reliability if no technologies dedicated to this issue are installed.

Transformation of the Electricity Sector: Technology, Policy and Business Models. Dossier in : Oxford Energy Forum, n° 104, Feb. 2016 https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/oxford-energy-forum-issue-104/

Electricity is in ferment – an unusual state for an industry which has traditionally been used to enjoying the stability of long term assets, steadily growing demand and secure revenues.  But these secure foundations are now coming into question as the industry faces major technological, economic and institutional change.  Perhaps most visible are the developments in electricity generation – the growing penetration of intermittent renewable generation, driven both by technological advances and by the policy commitment to decarbonisation.  Significant changes are also taking place elsewhere in the system, with the rapid development of information and control technology, which is opening the way for new approaches to system management and more flexible demand.  It is likely that we are only seeing the beginnings of these changes – they raise wider questions about the very nature of the industry’s product and its relationship with its customers.

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