Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (9/05/2016)
Demand response in a market environment / Larsen, E. M., Pinson, P., Ding, Y., & Østergaard, J. Technical University of Denmark, Department of Electrical Engineering, 2016, 135 p. (Ph.D. Thesis) http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2303799558
This thesis addresses the design, deployment and benefits of demand response in a market environment. Demand response is consumption that can be controlled by an external stimulus in the power system. Flexible consumption is a useful tool for absorbing volatile power from renewable sources like wind power and photovoltaics, and dealing with decentralised activity like electric vehicle charging. Without flexible consumption or other new technologies like storage, there will be several occasions of surplus or deficit of generation to meet the demand of the future, sometimes expected and sometimes not, that will lead to power system failure.
The type of demand response investigated is consumption controlled by indirect means, like an electricity price. Initially, algorithms responding to real-time electricity prices are researched and benchmarked according to comfort and cost. After this simulation, real power system data from the Danish island of Bornholm is introduced and methods to quantify an aggregated load is developed. These methods can be used for real-time operation and to support investment decisions. More specifically, they can be used to forecast the response to electricity pricing and to classify different types of customers. The proposed models are then embedded into new fiveminute electricity markets for system balancing and local congestion management. New market tools for exploiting and maintaining a degree of control over demand are developed, and the value of DR using indirect control is determined in terms of social welfare.
Out of the Darkness and Into the Light? Development Effects of Rural Electrification in India / Fiona Burlig and Louis Preonas. Energy Institute at Haas, 28/04/2016, 38 p. (EI @ Haas WP-268) http://ei.haas.berkeley.edu/research/working-papers.html
Abstract : Approximately 1.1 billion people around the world still lack access to electricity. At the same time, electrification is widely touted as an essential tool to help alleviate poverty and spur economic progress; universal energy access is one of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. As a result, developing countries are investing billions of dollars in rural energy access. While access to electricity is highly correlated with GDP at the national level, there exists limited evidence on the causal effects of electricity access on rural economies. In this paper, we estimate the effects of rural electrification on economic development in the context of the world’s largest unelectrified population. We study India’s massive national electrification program, RGGVY, which improved power access in over 400,000 villages…
Nigeria : la naissance d’un géant – Les douleurs de l’enfantement : l’électricité, Lettre Géopolitique de l’Electricité, n°62, avril 2016, 13 p. http://www.geopolitique-electricite.fr/documents/ene-177.pdf
Le Nigeria, première puissance économique d’Afrique, deviendra probablement le troisième pays du monde par sa population au cours de ce siècle.
Son dynamisme est réel et son potentiel de développement immense. La croissance actuelle sera cassée si le problème de l’électricité n’est pas réglé. La situation est intenable. Le pays n’a besoin ni d’aides financières (il existe une clientèle solvable et des investisseurs sont prêts), ni de conseils (les analystes locaux sont compétents) pour le résoudre. Le problème est la gouvernance et relève d’abord de l’ordre public et de la corruption, ensuite, de prises de décisions et de leurs mises effectives en œuvre. Ceci ne signifie pas que l’aide extérieure n’est pas utile, ni souhaitable.
Overcoming barriers to electrical energy storage: Comparing California and Europe / Francisco Castellano Ruz and Michael G. Pollitt. Cambridge : Energy Policy Research Group, 2016, 44 p. (EPRG n° 1614) http://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/eprg-working-paper-1614/
Multiple market drivers suggest that electrical energy storage (EES) systems are going to be essential for future power systems within the next decade. However, the deployment of the technology is proceeding at very different rates around the world. Whereas the sector is progressing quickly in California, it is not gaining much traction, so far, in Europe. This research aims to clarify why the prospects for energy storage in Europe are not as good as they are in California. The market and regulatory framework in California and Europe are analysed critically, and changes to overcome the main barriers are recommended.
The research shows that the main barriers are: inadequate definition and classification of EES in legislation; lack of markets for some ancillary services; inadequate market design that benefits traditional technologies; and the lack of need for EES in some jurisdictions.
The prospects are better in California because regulation is more advanced and favourable for the technology, and regulators are collaborating with developers and utilities to analyse barriers and solutions for the technology. In Europe, there is a need to clarify the definition of EES, create new markets for ancillary services, design technology-neutral market rules and study more deeply the necessity of EES.