Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (24/05/2016)
Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Belgium 2016. Paris : IEA/OECD, 2016 http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/book/9789264258099-en
In recent years, Belgium has made clear progress in increasing competition in the electricity and natural gas markets. It has also managed to reduce the use of fossil fuels and increase the use of renewable energy. The country´s economy is becoming less energy intensive. Belgium has excellent gas transport infrastructure, and its gas market is well-integrated with those of its neighbours. The country’s emergency oil stock levels are also high. As in all IEA member countries, a major challenge for Belgium is to decarbonise the economy while ensuring security of supply and affordability of energy. A long-term approach is required, and, given that responsibility for energy policy is divided between the federal and regional governments, the authorities must work decisively together to form a national energy strategy. Nuclear energy accounts for around half of Belgium’s electricity generation. The current policy is to close all nuclear power plants between 2022 and 2025, but this would seriously challenge Belgium’s efforts to ensure electricity security and provide affordable low-carbon electricity. The phase-out schedule should be relaxed to let the plants run as long as the regulator considers them safe. To attract critical investments in the energy sector – especially in electricity generation – the government should follow closely the principles of transparency, predictability and regulatory certainty. Under any scenario, energy supply needs to be further diversified and energy demand further limited. Transport and buildings hold a large potential for efficiency and climate gains, and fiscal incentives and price signals could be used more frequently in order to reap them.
The structure of China’s oil industry: Past trends and future prospects / Michal Meidan. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, May 2016, 58 p. (OIES paper : WPM 66) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/structure-chinas-oil-industry-past-trends-future-prospects/
China’s oil sector has been dominated by three large state-owned oil companies in charge of developing the country’s domestic reserves, building and operating pipelines, managing China’s increasingly sophisticated downstream, and filling its strategic petroleum reserves (SPR). Over the years, as China’s demand has outstripped production, they have also become major investors in the global upstream and established a presence in global refining and oil trading. They now rank among the top ten global oil companies. Yet despite China’s growing international reach, its oil sector remains heavily dominated by the Chinese state. From a majority stake in the oil companies, through price setting and diplomatic support for outbound investments, the government maintains significant influence over commercial decisions. At the same time, the technical knowhow and market expertise of the National Oil Companies (NOCs) offer them an important role in policy-making. This relationship is poorly understood, but it is now set to evolve further, alongside government efforts to gradually liberalize the energy sector and reform its state owned giants.
This paper provides a historic overview of the development of the Chinese oil industry, focusing on the relations between the government and the oil companies before assessing how the reform agenda outlined by President Xi Jinping and the liberalization of the oil industry is impacting government–industry relations, as well as China’s global energy footprint.
International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016). U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), May 2016 http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/
IEO2016 presents updated projections for world energy markets through 2040. Outside of the United States, projections are based on current laws, regulations, and announced policies, where such indicators have historically been reliable guides. For the United States, the projections are generally based on existing laws and regulations but do not include the effects of the recently finalized Clean Power Plan (CPP) regulations. Published EIA analysis of the proposed version of the CPP shows potential significant reductions in U.S. coal consumption and increases in U.S. renewable consumption. Text, tables, and figures throughout IEO2016 address the CPP where it causes results to differ significantly from those in the IEO2016 Reference case… suite de la présentation
Au sommaire de la Revue française d’économie, vol. 30 n°4, avril 2016 https://www.cairn.info/revue-francaise-d-economie-2015-4.htm :
- Transition énergétique. Politiques de soutien aux renouvelables et de lutte contre la précarité / Francesco Ricci, p. 101-104
- Quels soutiens aux énergies renouvelables électriques ? / Philippe Quirion, p. 105-140
- Aides publiques aux énergies éolienne et photovoltaïque / Jacques Percebois, p. 141-186
- Les indicateurs de la précarité énergétique en France / Dorothée Charlier, Anna Risch, Claire Salmon, p. 187-230