Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (30/06/2016)

Towards clean and smart mobility : Transport and environment in Europe. Copenhagen : European Environmental Agency, 2016, 35 p.

Signals 2016 focuses on transport and mobility. Transport connects people, cultures, cities, countries and continents. It is one of the main pillars of the modern society and economy. At the same time, it is responsible for a quarter of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions, and causes air pollution, noise pollution and habitat fragmentation. Signals 2016 looks into how Europe’s carbon-dependent transport sector can be turned into a clean and smart mobility system.

Quantifying Uncertainties in Modeling Climate Change Impacts on Hydropower Production / Ganiyu Titilope Oyerinde, Dominik Wisser, Fabien C.C. Hountondji, Ayo J. Odofin, Agnide E. Lawin, Abel Afouda and Bernd Diekkrüger, Climate, 4(3), Published 24 June 2016

Climate change will have large impacts on water resources and its predictions are fraught with uncertainties in West Africa. With the current global drive for renewable energy due to climate change, there is a need for understanding the effects of hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydropower generation. A hydrological model was used to model runoff inflow into the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin (West Africa) under present and future conditions. Inflow to the reservoir was simulated using hydro-climatic data from a set of dynamically downscaled 8 global climate models (GCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Observed records of the Kainji Lake were used to develop a hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results indicate an increase in inflow into the reservoir and concurrent increases in hydropower production for the majority of the GCM data under the two scenarios. This analysis helps planning hydropower schemes for sustainable hydropower production.

Mapping the climate change challenge / Stephane Hallegatte, Joeri Rogelj, Myles Allen, Leon Clarke, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christopher B. Field, Pierre Friedlingstein, Line van Kesteren, Reto Knutti, Katharine J. Mach, Michael Mastrandrea, Adrien Michel, Jan Minx, Michael Oppenheimer, Gian-Kasper Plattner, Keywan Riahi, Michiel Schaeffer, Thomas F. Stocker & >Detlef P. van Vuuren, Nature Climate Change, 6, pp. 663-668, published online 23 June 2016

Discussions on a long-term global goal to limit climate change, in the form of an upper limit to warming, were only partially resolved at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations in Paris, 2015. Such a political agreement must be informed by scientific knowledge. One way to communicate the costs and benefits of policies is through a mapping that systematically explores the consequences of different choices. Such a multi-disciplinary effort based on the analysis of a set of scenarios helped structure the IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report. This Perspective summarizes this approach, reviews its strengths and limitations, and discusses how decision-makers can use its results in practice. It also identifies research needs that can facilitate integrated analysis of climate change and help better inform policy-makers and the public.

Raising Ambition : State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2016. Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace (EM), May 2016, 58 p.

The EM report shows that while the world’s nations prepared for the historic Paris Agreement on climate change last year, individuals, corporations, and state and national governments used voluntary carbon markets to ramp up their own climate action.

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