Energie : papier de recherche moissonnés (6 juillet 2016)

Sustainable electricity pricing for Tanzania / Donna Peng & Rahmatallah Poudineh. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2016, 120 p. (OIES paper : EL 20) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/susatainable-electricity-pricing-tanzania/

In order to fulfil its aspiration to become a middle-income country, Tanzania is working on improving infrastructure and service delivery in electricity provision, where $40 billion investment is needed in the sector to meet rising demand and widening electrification efforts from 2013 to 2035. This paper considers the institutional arrangements for investment in Tanzania’s power sector and surveys the track record (and possible bottlenecks) in funnelling investment to the sector, with special attention given to the gas sector, given the power sector’s planned reliance upon natural gas as a generation fuel. The paper finds that the financial health of TANESCO is central to all investment vehicles, since it is either directly responsible for investment, or indirectly, as the counter party to the variety of PPAs available with IPPs, EPPs, SPPs, or PPPs. During 2011–13, the financial position of TANESCO was negatively impacted by the increased of its electricity purchases, while the regulated tariff that it charges has not changed. The cost increase is partially attributable to non-favourable hydrology and partially attributable to the depreciation of Tanzanian shilling against the US dollar, in which PPAs are denominated.

Detailed study of the tariff setting methodology in place in Tanzania, as evidenced through its latest tariff review, and evaluation of the ratemaking principles used in the tariff approved in 2013 reveals that the core tension within Tanzania’s tariff setting methodology is the trade-off between efficiency, sufficiency, and stability principles. The ex-ante assessment of TANESCO’s revenue requirement, a typical incentive-based price cap regulation, is theoretically efficient but not robust: TANESCO’s costs of service are subject to important external uncertainties like hydrology, currency depreciation, and global fuel prices. In order to take revenue sufficiency into account, the regulator needs to periodically adjust tariffs based on ex post fuel costs and inflation rates. This diminishes the regulator’s ability to maintain tariff stability, which might impact certain classes of customers more than others (lifeline rate customers and domestic industries). The experiences of other nations, namely Bangladesh and Côte d’Ivoire, reveal a potential challenge with regard to power and gas co-development: if non-cost reflective gas tariffs are applied as a regulatory decision, then high gas demand that results from that cannot be indefinitely sustained, since investment in gas supply will not follow suite. The case study of Côte d’Ivoire also reveals a less obvious opportunity: periods of low electricity demand can be leveraged positively through electricity exports, which can positively influence investor interest

Boosting the Power Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa : China’s involvement / David Benazeraf. Paris : IEA, July 2016, 52 p. (Partner Country Series) http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/partner-country-series—boosting-the-power-sector-in-sub-saharan-africa—chinas-involvement.html

Lack of energy access and frequent electricity shortages are major impediments to economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The region needs increased investment in the power sector. Chinese-built power projects and financial support from China are contributing to power sector development, extending energy access and facilitating economic growth. This report analyses China’s engagement in the sub-Saharan Africa power sector, including the key drivers underlying Chinese investments. An overview of Chinese projects (generation, transmission and distribution) during the 2010-20 period is provided in this first-ever consolidated effort to map them. The report identifies the key Chinese stakeholders and assesses their impact on policies affecting energy access, economic development and financing modalities. Two case studies examine Chinese investment at the country level in Ghana and Ethiopia.

Innovations organisationnelle, technologique et économique : l’industrie nucléaire se réinvente pour relever les défis de 2030. Paris  :SFEN, juin 2016, 14 p. http://www.sfen.org/sites/default/files/public/atoms/files/lindustrie_nucleaire_se_reinvente_pour_relever_les_defis_de_2030_-_sfen_juin_2016.pdf

(…) L’innovation est la clé de voûte du développement de l’énergie nucléaire depuis son origine. Dans un marché en croissance, soumis à une concurrence de plus en plus forte, la filière française doit aujourd’hui se réinventer et innover sur tous les champs : organisationnel, en mettant en œuvre de nouveaux modes de collaboration entre les entreprises ; technologique, en proposant une gamme de produits et services en accord avec les attentes du marché ; et économique, en proposant de nouveaux mécanismes de marché…

Energy and Resilient Cities. Paris : OECD, July 2016, 96 p. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/workingpaper/5jlwj0rl3745-en

This paper analyses the role of cities in energy policies to build resilience and assesses related energy policy practices in cities. It analyses how energy affects resilience in cities from the economic, environmental, social and institutional perspectives. It also assesses the policy practices of six cities; Barcelona (Spain), Bristol (UK), Kyoto (Japan), Munich (Germany), Perpignan (France) and Toronto (Canada). This paper outlines the building blocks of key policy strategies; adaptive energy management, robust energy management, redundant energy management, flexible energy management, inclusive energy management, resourceful energy management and integrated energy management. It proposes a number of policy measures in the building blocks for managing energy smartly in cities to build resilience.

Unlocking Renewable Energy Investment: The role of risk mitigation and structured finance / Henning Wuester, Joanne Jungmin Lee and Aleksi Lumijarvi. Abu Dhabi : Irena, 2016, 148 p. http://www.irena.org/menu/index.aspx?mnu=Subcat&PriMenuID=36&CatID=141&SubcatID=2730

The report identifies the main risks and barriers limiting investment; it also supplies a toolkit for policy makers, public and private investors, and public finance institutions to scale up their investments in renewable energy. Accompanying case studies and survey material provide insights on the challenges, the opportunities and what has actually worked in different markets. IRENA complied these real-world examples and conducted survey questionnaires through engagement with its member countries and industry stakeholders in both energy and finance…

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