Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (14/09/2016)

Fossil fuel subsidies and the new EU Climate and Energy Governance Mechanism / Oliver Sartor et Thomas Spencer, Working Papers N°09/2016. Iddri, July 2016. 20 p. http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Fossil-fuel-subsidies-and-the-new-EU-Climate-and-Energy-Governance-Mechanism

L’Union européenne ne dispose actuellement pas de suivi des subventions aux énergies fossiles, ni de leur éradication dans les États membres. Cette situation s’inscrit en contradiction avec les objectifs affichés par l’Union de décarbonation et d’efficacité énergétique. C’est pourquoi un tel mécanisme est nécessaire, et les processus de gouvernance de l’Union de l’énergie constituent une opportunité pour combler ce manque.

Production sharing contracts in the oil and gas industry / Ratko Brnabic, Faculty of Law in Split, Croatia. In : 16th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – The Legal Challenges of Modern World – Split, 1-2 September 2016, p.151 et suiv. – L’ensemble des papiers est disponible ici : http://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/831392.esd_Book_of_Proceedings_Split_2016_Online.pdf

When dealing with the issues of gas and oil exploration and production, international investors and host countris can use different types of agreements: concession contracts, production sharing agreements, joint operating agreements or contracts services. Production Sharing contracts come in a variety of styles. There are two parties to the contract, a foreign oil company and a government representative which can be a head of state, a ministry or a national oil company The latter is the more common case. On the side of the foreign contractor we frequently find joint ventures or consortia rather than an individual firm but they all are considered to be one party to the contract so they must agree on the details of their cooperation because, in the end they as partnership assume all costs and risks associated with the exploration and production of oil and gas. In the event that a commercial discovery is made, the international oil company is entitled to a share of the production in order to recover all costs as well as to have a return on the investment. One of the main objectives of the Contract is to attract multinational companies in the sector of oil and gas that are interested and willing to risk capital and utilize technological expertise to develop the reserves in the Country. Namely, most of hydrocarbons reserves are located in developing countries without technical skills (seismic surveys, drilling wells, production techniques) nor financial means (low access to capital markets) to efficiently exploit natural resources. Hence, governments often delegate the exploration and production activities to international extractive companies. Under the Concession regime the international oil company is the owner of the petroleum extracted from the soil. For the Production sharing Contract, on the other hand, the country is the owner of the oil. In this way, the contributions to the state are no longer through taxes and royalties, but the extracted oil is passed on to the state directly. Part of the petroleum is then given to the international oil company as a compensation for its activities and the risks involved with the exploration. Although the oil belongs to the State, the companies take the risks. However, the State can also take risks by allowing part of its profit to be used to develop the area.
In the paper special emphasis is given to the following questions: Parties and Instruments of Contracts, Ownership of Production, Ownership of Installation, Responsibilities of International oil companies and the Government.

From Paris to the End of Oil / Dag Harald Claes and Helge Hveem, Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, Politics and Governance, Vol. 4, n° 3, pp. 197-208 http://www.cogitatiopress.com/ojs/index.php/politicsandgovernance/article/download/651/651

This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geo)politics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

Lower for Longer: Saudi Arabia Adjusts to the New Oil Era / Gawdat Bahgat, Middle East Policy, Fall 2016, Vol. XXIII, N. 3 http://www.mepc.org/journal/middle-east-policy-archives/lower-longer-saudi-arabia-adjusts-new-oil-era

Saudi Arabia, with the largest economy in the Arab world, is deeply dependent on oil exports (approximately 75-80 percent of total revenues). Largely due to high oil prices…

Géopolitique du pétrole : l’Afrique terrain de bataille / Frédéric Munier, Diploweb.com-La revue géopolitique, 11/09/2016 http://www.diploweb.com/Geopolitique-du-petrole-l-Afrique.html

Le pétrole apparaît comme une véritable aubaine pour des pays comme le Ghana, le Cameroun, la Côte d’Ivoire ou l’Ouganda. Toutefois, il subsiste de nombreux défis pour le continent africain. Gérer le partage de la rente pétrolière, faire du pétrole un véritable moteur de développement pour sa population, diversifier leurs économies pour éviter la dépendance sont autant de défis auxquels le continent doit faire face si il veut maîtriser cette ressource si convoitée.

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