Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (24 novembre 2016)

Limit Pricing, Climate Policies, and Imperfect Substitution / Gerard van der Meijden and Cees Withagen. Tinbergen Institute, Oct. 2016, 25 p. (Discussion Paper TI 2016-089/VIII)

The effects of climate policies are often studied under the assumption of perfectly competitive markets for fossil fuels. In this paper, we allow for monopolistic fossil fuel supply. We show that, if fossil and renewable energy sources are perfect substitutes, a phase will exist during which the monopolist chooses a limit pricing strategy. If limit pricing occurs from the beginning, a renewables subsidy increases initial extraction, whereas a carbon tax leaves initial extraction unaffected. However, if initially fossil fuels are cheaper than renewables, a renewables subsidy and a carbon tax lower initial extraction, contrary to the case of perfect competition. Both policy instruments lower cumulative extraction. If fossil fuels and renewables are imperfect but good substitutes, the monopolist will exhibit ‘limit pricing resembling’ behavior, by keeping the effective price of fossil close to that of renewables for considerable time. The empirical question whether energy demand is elastic or inelastic has less drastic implications for the fossil price and extraction paths than under perfect substitutability.

Greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries / Takeshi Kuramochi, Niklas Höhne, Sofia Gonzales-Zuñiga, Frederic Hans, Sebastian Sterl, Markus Hagemann, Michel den Elzen, Mark Roelfsema, Heleen van Soest, Nicklas Forsell, Olga Turkovska. NewClimate Institute, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Nov. 2016, 103 p.

This new report by  provides an overview of projected greenhouse gas emissions in 25 major emitting countries/regions up to 2030, taking into account the emission trajectories based on current policies and the implementation of intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) and nationally determined contributions (NDCs).

Energy, Climate Change and Environment: 2016 Insights. Paris : IEA, November 2016, 133 p.

This second edition examines a suite of climate-related policy issues in the context of increased global climate ambition following COP21.  An expanded description follows.

Complexity and the Economics of Climate Change: a Survey and a Look Forward / Tomas Balint, Francesco Lamperti, Antoine Mandel, Mauro Napoletano, Andrea Roventini, et al. Centre d’Economie de la Sorbonne, July 2016, 38 p. (Documents de travail du  2016.58)

We provide a survey of the micro and macro economics of climate change from a complexity science perspective and we discuss the challenges ahead for this line of research. We identify four areas of the literature where complex system models have already produced valuable insights: (i) coalition formation and climate negotiations, (ii) macroeconomic impacts of climate-related events, (iii) energy markets and (iv) diusion of climate-friendly technologies. On each of these issues, accounting for heterogeneity, interactions and disequilibrium dynamics provides a complementary and novel perspective to the one of standard equilibrium models. Furthermore, it highlights the potential economic benets of mitigation and adaptation policies and the risk of under-estimating systemic climate change-related risks.

Politiques d’adaptation au changement climatique et injustices environnementales. Le pluralisme des relations à l’environnement dans la mise en forme de la contrainte adaptative / Laura Centemeri, Jean-Stephane Borja, Alexandre Gaudin. Paris : EHESS, 3016, 23 p. (occasional paper. 2016)

Résumé des auteurs : Cet article propose un cadre d’analyse des problématiques soulevées par les politiques d’adaptation au changement climatique, à partir d’une prise en compte de la variété de relations que l’être humain tisse avec son environnement. Ce pluralisme échappe aux politiques d’adaptation qui gouvernent « par l’objectif ». Cette pluralité, qui se manifeste dans les processus de mise en forme d’une contrainte adaptative, permet d’élargir l’analyse critique des politiques d’adaptation, au-delà de leurs impacts sur les inégalités écologiques et sociales. Il s’agit de prendre en compte des « injustices environnementales ordinaires », au sens de la faible attention portée par les politiques publiques aux modes pluriels qu’a un environnement de compter pour les personnes et les collectivités.

Cop22 After Trump: The Good and Bad News for Climate Change / Gernot Wagner and David Keith, Foreign Affairs, 21/11/2016

On the Monday before the U.S. presidential election, climate negotiators gathered in Marrakesh, Morocco, to begin the long, hard process of implementing the Paris Climate Agreement. But all eyes were on the United States, and when the news that Donald Trump had won the election hit Marrakesh early Wednesday morning, it was not well received…

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