Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (13 décembre 2016)

Les chiffres-clés de la précarité énergétique : édition n° 2 / Observatoire national de la précarité énergétique. Paris : Ademe, novembre 2016 http://onpe.org/sites/default/files/pdf/tableau_de_bord/chiffres-cles-precarite-energetique-novembre2016.pdf

Il apparaît que près de 12 millions de personnes (6 millions de ménages, soit 1 Français sur 5) sont en situation de précarité énergétique, soit parce qu’ils consacrent plus de 10% de leurs revenus aux dépenses énergétiques destinées à leur logement, soit parce qu’ils déclarent éprouver une sensation de froid liée à un équipement de chauffage défaillant ou à une mauvaise isolation. Ces chiffres sont en hausse, puisque lors de son précédent bilan, il y a deux ans, l’ONPE dénombrait 5,1 millions de foyers concernés, soit environ 11,5 millions de personnes… (©Unccas)

Coal Smoke and the Costs of the Industrial Revolution / W. Walker Hanlon. Dec. 2016 (NBER Working Paper No. 22921) http://www.nber.org/papers/w22921 – draft : http://www.econ.ucla.edu/whanlon/papers/hanlon_coal_and_the_costs_of_the_IR.pdf

While the Industrial Revolution brought economic growth, there is a long debate in economics over the costs of the pollution externalities that accompanied early industrialization. To help settle this debate, this paper introduces a new theoretically-grounded strategy for estimating the impact of industrial pollution on local economic development and applies this approach to data from British cities for 1851-1911. I show that local industrial coal use substantially reduced long-run city employment growth over this period. Moreover, a counterfactual analysis suggests that plausible improvements in coal use efficiency would have led to substantially higher urbanization rates in Britain by 1911.

Transition Towards a Green Economy in Europe: Innovation and Knowledge Integration in the Renewable Energy Sector / C. Conti, M. L. Mancusi, F. Sanna-Randaccio, R. Sestini, E. Verdolini. Milan : Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, 2016, 31 p. (nota di lavoro ; 2016.071) http://www.feem.it/userfiles/attach/201612121114134NDL2016-071.pdf

A major concern regarding innovation in clean technologies in the EU is that the fragmentation of its innovation system may hinder knowledge flows and, consequently, spillovers across member countries. A low intensity of knowledge flows across EU states can negatively impact their technological base, suppressing opportunities for further innovations and hindering the movement towards the technological frontier. This paper evaluates the fragmentation of the EU innovation system in the field of renewable energy sources (RES) by examining the intensity and direction of knowledge spillovers over the years 1985-2010. We modify the original double exponential knowledge diffusion model to provide information on the degree of integration of EU countries’ innovation efforts and to assess how citation patterns changed over time. We show that EU RES inventors have increasingly built “on the shoulders of the other EU giants”, intensifying their citations to other member countries and decreasing those to domestic inventors. Furthermore, the EU strengthened its position as source of RES knowledge for the US. Finally, we show that this pattern is peculiar to RES, with other traditional (i.e. fossil-based) energy technologies behaving in a completely different way.

Impact assessment study on downstream flexibility, price flexibility, demand response & smart metering : final report / COWI in cooperation with AF Mercados EMI, ECOFYS, THEMA and VITO. European Commission. DG Energy, July 2016, 192 p. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/demand_response_ia_study_final_report_12-08-2016.pdf

The study analyses the current situation with regard to demand response in Europe, projects how demand response is likely to develop under current conditions and assesses alternative policy options in response to identified market barriers. This study provided input to the Impact Assessment supporting the legislative proposal for a new market design which is part of the Commission’s « Clean Energy for All Europeans » package.

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