Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (20/01/2017)

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy 2016. Paris : IEA, Jan. 2017, 210 p. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/energy/energy-policies-of-iea-countries-italy-2016_9789264239272-en

Since the last in-depth review in 2009, Italy has made strong progress in the development and implementation of energy policy. The most notable improvement has been the publication of a comprehensive long-term energy strategy.
The adoption of the National Energy Strategy in 2013 sent a strong signal to stakeholders as to the government’s medium- and long-term objectives for the energy sector. It established clear goals: reduce energy costs, meet environmental targets, strengthen security of energy supply and foster sustainable economic growth. Nonetheless, the adoption of the Strategy is only a first step towards achieving the government’s ambitions. Monitoring implementation and maintaining momentum will present a challenge for the government.
Italy has experienced impressive growth in the renewable energy sector and has been successful in integrating large volumes of variable renewable generation. Containing costs is a priority, and policies need to focus on bringing deployment costs towards international benchmarks.
Italy has also continued to progress in terms of market liberalisation and infrastructure development, notably in the electricity market where transmission improvements between north and south, as well as market coupling, have resulted in price convergence throughout the country and wholesale prices tending towards those elsewhere in Europe. Development in the gas sector has been slower, and greater progress is needed if Italy is to be become a southern European gas hub. Furthermore, institutional arrangements within the energy sector remain complex and should be reformed and strengthened. Implementation of the National Energy Strategy provides a timely opportunity to address each of these challenges in a comprehensive way.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Italy and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

Nuclear Energy Data 2016 / Nuclear Energy Agency. OECD, Jan. 2017, 103 p. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/book/ned-2016-en-fr

Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in 2015, by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Two new units were connected to the grid in 2015, in Russia and Korea; two reactors returned to operation in Japan under the new regulatory regime; and seven reactors were officially shut down – five in Japan, one in Germany and one in the United Kingdom. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects progressing in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication’s numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

International comparison of light-duty vehicle fuel economy 2005-2015: ten years of fuel economy benchmarking. GFEI ; IEA, 2017, 133 p. (GFEI Working Paper 15) http://www.globalfueleconomy.org/data-and-research/publications/gfei-working-paper-15

At TRB 2017, Pierpaolo Cazzola shared GFEI’s latest fuel economy benchmarking study, which examines global progress in improving average fuel economy over the decade from 2005 to 2015. The new report is unique in its scale and comprehensiveness, covering more than 80% of the global vehicle market. It extends and enhances previous research that GFEI has published regularly since 2011 by including a longer time series, an updated in-depth exploration of fuel economy drivers in 17 countries and a new section on trends in vehicle prices globally.

Gone with the wind: an empirical analysis of the renewable energy rent transfer / Matti Liski and Iivo Vehviläine. Energy Policy Research Group, Dec. 2016, 70 p. (EPRG working paper ; 1701) http://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/1701-Text.pdf

Subsidies to renewable energy are costly and contentious. We estimate the reduction in prices that follows from the subsidized entry of wind power in the Nordic electricity market. A relatively small-scale entry of renewables leads to a large-scale transfer of surplus from the incumbent producers to the consumers: 10 % market share for wind generation eliminates one-half of the total electricity market expenditures. The subsidies generate net gains to consumers. We develop an approach to analyzing storage and renewable energy in equilibrium, and provide an anatomy of a market dominated by such technologies.

Iranian Energy: a comeback with hurdles / David Ramin Jalilvand, Friedrich Ebert Foundation. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Jan. 2017, 9 p. (Oxford energy comment) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/iranian-energy-comeback-hurdles/

One year ago, on 16 January 2016, the Iran nuclear deal was formally implemented. Officially known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the deal was concluded in July 2015 between Iran and the ‘E3+3’, which comprises France, Germany, and Great Britain, China, Russia, and the United States. In essence, the JCPOA allows for the lifting of several sanctions against Iran in exchange for limitations on, and greater international inspections of, Iran’s nuclear programme. In the Iranian energy sector, the JCPOA was greeted with hope and expectations of a revival. Sanctions have constrained the industry for several years; amongst other effects they have forced Western companies to leave the country and reduced oil production and exports. Indeed, implementation of the JCPOA was accompanied by the lifting of energy sector-related sanctions and has encouraged several international oil companies (IOCs) to move to Iran to explore the potential for co-operation. Against this backdrop, it is worth examining the merits of the JCPOA for the Iranian energy sector up to this point – a year since the beginning of its implementation. It is argued in this comment that the Iranian government has been trying to strike a balance between various competing power centres at home, while attempting to hedge risks at the international stage. On the ground, however, actual progress has been rather modest so far. Iran has increased its oil production to the pre-sanctions level but is still waiting to see an expansion of its productive capacity. In the meantime, uncertainty with regard to the outlook of Iran’s energy sector has increased, as the future course of US policy – incoming President Donald Trump has been an outspoken critic of the JCPOA – remains unclear.

The water-energy-food nexus: Is the increasing attention warranted, from either a research or policy perspective? / Dennis Wichelns, Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 69, March 2017, pp. 113-123 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901116302970

Highlights :

  • The water-energy-food nexus is not a new or innovative concept.
  • Depictions of the water-energy-food nexus vary notably among authors.
  • Enhancing research integration and achieving policy coherence are not always possible, and are not necessarily optimal.

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