Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (8 février 2017)

 The Economic Consequences of Brexit: Energy / Michael Pollitt. Energy Policy Research Group, Jan. 2017, 13 p. (EPRG Working Paper 1702) http://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/eprg-working-paper-1702/

In this paper we raise a number of issues that are important for the UK to consider in the light of its decision to leave the European Union (EU). The first of these is the nature of the EU Single Market in Electricity and Gas and the UK’s role within this. The second is the nature of UK energy policy in the light of Brexit, and the opportunities for changing this. And third, we consider some of the key issues to be addressed in a negotiating position with the EU.

Deuxième rapport sur l’état de l’union de l’énergie : communication de la Commission au Parlement européen, au Conseil, au Comité économique et social européen, au Comité des régions et à la Banque européenne d’investissement. Bruxelles : Commission européenne, 1er février 2017, 18 p. https://ec.europa.eu/priorities/second-report-state-energy-union_en

La transition énergétique de l’Europe est déjà bien engagée. Le deuxième rapport sur l’état de l’union de l’énergie montre que la modernisation de l’économie de l’Union européenne et la transition vers une ère à faible intensité de carbone est en cours de réalisation. L’Europe est en passe d’atteindre ses objectifs pour 2020 en ce qui concerne les émissions de gaz à effet de serre, l’efficacité énergétique et la production d’énergie de sources renouvelables. Pour aller encore plus loin dans ce processus, la Commission annonce aujourd’hui une nouvelle tournée en faveur de l’union de l’énergie… lire la suite du communiqué

Against the Wind: China’s Struggle to Integrate Wind Energy into Its National Grid / Long Lam (Carnegie Mellon University), Lee G. Branstetter (PIIE) and Inês M. L. Azevedo (Carnegie Mellon University). Peterson Institute for International Economics, Jan. 2017, 12 p. (Policy Brief 17-5) https://piie.com/publications/policy-briefs/against-wind-chinas-struggle-integrate-wind-energy-its-national-grid

China launched an unprecedented wind farm construction boom a decade ago to expand renewable energy’s share of its primary energy by exploiting its considerable wind energy resources. On the surface these efforts appeared to yield great success, with China’s wind generating capacity growing more than 100-fold in less than 10 years. But close examination of its aggressive top-down approach to the promotion of renewable energy reveals that China has fallen far short of its ambitious goals. Turbines were quickly installed—but many of them were not connected to the power grid…

Kicking a Crude Habit: Diversifying Away from Oil and Gas in the 21st Century / Cullen S. Hendrix. Peterson Institute for International Economics, Feb. 2017, 26 p. https://piie.com/publications/working-papers/kicking-crude-habit-diversifying-away-oil-and-gas-21st-century

This working paper examines the fortunes of 40 oil- and gas-dependent economies during the 21st century commodity boom and finds that in spite of oil and gas prices nearly trebling, a sizable majority (75 percent) of these countries saw oil and gas rents decrease as a share of GDP. Yet many oil- and gas-rich economies continue to rely very heavily on these resources for export revenue. Internal economic diversification in the 21st century has been less a matter of correct policy formation and implementation and more a matter of factors that shape the policymaking environment, with the findings suggesting a difficult road to economic diversification for the Gulf Cooperation Council economies.

Towards a Balkan gas hub: the interplay between pipeline gas, LNG and renewable energy in South East Europe / Aleksandar Kovacevic. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Feb. 2017, 113 p. https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/30072/

Crude and gas from the Russian Federation dominates the South Eastern Europe (SEE) import portfolio. Russian companies control oil refineries in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia. Gazprom is the main gas supplier to the entire region and the only producer of domestic gas (and oil) in Serbia. Its gas export is associated with a network of subsidiaries, resellers, agents and sponsorships that are granted special rights in their respective countries of operation. This system is supported by the availability of “on demand” credit resources that contribute to the soft budget constraint and facilitate the operation of low efficiency district heating systems, emergency power generation and inefficient (fertilizer, etc.) industries. This formal and informal network of control goes way beyond monopolistic market behavior and constitutes an effective “stick and carrot” government capture system. In this governance context, and if the current supply and demand structure remains, SEE will have an increased energy security risk due its exposure to a disruption in gas supply via Ukraine. In contrast, the European Union (EU) is looking toward this region as an option to improve its security of gas supply and diversify its supply portfolio. This encourages local expectations of transit rents and is based on the assumption that the region may host the following: Southern Gas Corridor, North-South Gas Interconnection and Central/South Eastern Electricity Interconnection.  There are more overlapping energy transit projects being considered than in any other region in Europe.

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