Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés – 23 août 2017
FAO strategy on climate change. Rome : FAO, July 2017, 48 p. Version anglaise – Version française
The Strategy has been developed collaboratively to provide an all-encompassing framework for FAO’s work on climate change: This includes all technical and geographical areas as well as policy and governance, and FAO’s own capacity to deliver. It translates FAO’s core mandate into strategic choices and action priorities at global, regional, national and local levels with the central goal of supporting its Member Nations in achieving their commitments under the Paris Agreement and their priorities under the Sustainable Development Goals.
A Survey of Global Impacts of Climate Change: Replication, Survey Methods, and a Statistical Analysis / William D. Nordhaus, Andrew Moffat. NBER Working Paper No. 23646, August 2017 http://www.nber.org/papers/w23646 – DRAFT
The present study has two objectives. The first is a review of studies that estimate the global economic impacts of climate change using a systematic research synthesis (SRS). In this review, we attempt to replicate the impact estimates provided by Tol (2009, 2014) and find a large number of errors and estimates that could not be replicated. The study provides revised estimates for a total of 36 usable estimates from 27 studies. A second part of the study performs a statistical analysis. While the different specifications provide alternative estimates of the damage function, there were no large discrepancies among specifications. The preferred regression is the median, quadratic, weighted regression. The data here omit several important potential damages, which we estimate to add 25% to the quantified damages. With this addition, the estimated impact is -2.04 (± 2.21) % of income at 3 °C warming and -8.06 (± 2.43) % of income at 6 °C warming. We also considered the likelihood of thresholds or sharp convexities in the damage function and found no evidence from the damage estimates of a sharp discontinuity or high convexity.
Policy Stability in Climate Governance: The case of the United Kingdom / K. Rietig and T. Laing, Environmental Policy and Governance, 15 Aug. 2017 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eet.1762/abstract
‘Super-wicked’ problems such as climate change require ambitious policies within stable policy frameworks. Key for policy stability is to disincentivise future reversals to carbon-intensive lifestyles resulting in unstoppable climate change. It requires lock-in to a low-carbon development trajectory, requires increasing popular support, and needs to be self-reinforcing, with reversal costs rising over time as benefits increase. In parliamentary political systems (e.g. the UK), policies emerge more easily but are more difficult to maintain given that shifting political majorities can result in policy U-turns, resulting in uncertainties for investment in low-carbon transitions. We examine what factors determine policy stability in UK climate change policy that aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 85–90 per cent by 2050. Policy stability depends on favourable public opinion and the political system. In the case of parliamentary democracies the extent to which policy is embedded into a multilevel governance institutional framework and political cross-party consensus is particularly important for stability.
Regional Differences in CO2 Emissions from the French Residential Sector: Determinants and Distributional Consequences / Ibrahim Ahamada, Mouez Fodha et Djamel Kirat, Revue d’économie politique, vol. 127, n° 3, pp. 353-374. http://www.cairn.info/revue-d-economie-politique-2017-3-p-353.htm
This paper investigates empirically the determinants of the CO2 emissions from the residential and commercial sectors in France. We use panel data on the 22 French administrative regions over the 1995-2009 period. We estimate the relationship between regional CO2 emissions per capita, regional GDP, temperature, the annual number of frost days, heating technology and energy prices. We use these results to assess the regional consequences of implementing a carbon tax of 22€ per metric ton of CO2, and conclude that this policy would increase inequalities between regions. We show that a region-specific carbon tax that equalizes the tax burden among regions, instead of a homogenous national tax, may compensate these inequalities and reduce total CO2 emissions. Last, we show that taking regional specific effects into account in the design of the environmental tax reform may help make this policy more acceptable.
Recherche et politiques publiques environnementales : vers un modèle d’interactions / Corinne Larrue, Natures Sciences Sociétés, suppl. : Pour une recherche en appui à l’action publique : leçons de l’expérience du ministère de l’environnement (1990–2016), Aug. 2017 https://www.nss-journal.org/articles/nss/abs/first/nss170039/nss170039.html
(…) Ce propos sera structuré en deux principaux points : d’une part, une mise en perspective historique des interactions entre le ministère de l’Environnement et la communauté des chercheurs ; d’autre part, une réflexion sur les dispositifs en place et leurs résultats en termes de percolation des problématiques d’action publique dans les milieux de recherche et de mobilisation des travaux de recherches dans les sphères décisionnelles…