Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (vendredi 25 août 2017)

Gazprom et l’incertitude du marché gazier européen : vers une stratégie défense de sa part de marché ? / Sadek Boussena et Catherine Locatelli. Revue d’économie industrielle, n° 157, 2017, pp. 33-60 https://rei.revues.org/6513

L’objectif de cet article est d’apprécier quelle stratégie pourrait être mise en place par Gazprom, le fournisseur dominant de l’UE, durant la phase de transition que connaît le marché gazier européen, afin de conserver (augmenter ?) ses parts de marché et maximiser ses revenus. Il s’agit d’explorer les possibilités d’actions stratégiques sur le long terme, autres que celles consistant à défendre les volumes au travers d’une guerre des prix. En particulier, on tentera de définir si Gazprom répond aux conditions (spare capacity, swing producer, bas coût de production) qui lui permettraient de mettre en œuvre une stratégie visant à instrumentaliser l’incertitude sur les prix. Cette stratégie sera définie par référence à celle menée par l’Arabie Saoudite sur le marché pétrolier international.

Promoting Nuclear Energy: Market Pricing or regulated Tariffs? / Jacques Percebois, International Journal of Power and Energy Research, Vol 1, N°2, July 2017 http://www.chaireeconomieduclimat.org/publications/rapports-articles/promoting-nuclear-energy-market-pricing-or-regulated-tariffs-jacques-percebois/

In Europe, the ability for nuclear power to compete in the energy market is undermined by two interconnected issues: a scheme of guaranteed purchase prices for renewable energy sources (wind and solar) and very low spot market prices. A feed-in tariffs system increases costs to end-users and moreover prompts decreases in the electricity price on the wholesale market. Low spot electricity prices jeopardize conventional power investments, particularly in nuclear energy. Consequently, to redress the balance between nuclear and renewable energy, it is necessary to cut subsidies for renewables and/or to help the nuclear sector through an arrangement, such as “Contract for Differences”, employed in the United Kingdom. Such a mechanism may guarantee profitability of nuclear investments in the future. This paper presents, in the introduction, the specificity of the French electricity sector; it analyses in a second step some “perverse effects” due to the “feed-in tariffs” mechanism implemented in the European Union, particularly in France because of the system of regulated prices for the end-user and presents then some suggested solutions for restoring the competitiveness of nuclear energy, which is an important goal for France.

Synergies between renewable energy and energy efficiency. Abu Dhabi : Irena, Aug. 2017, 121 p. (working paper based onREmap) http://sdg.iisd.org/news/irena-explores-synergies-between-renewables-and-energy-efficiency-renewables-expansion-in-india

The working paper finds that combining both strategies (RE/EE strategies) could not only reduce energy-related emissions by up to 90%, but would also substantially lower the cost of decarbonizing national energy systems. It argues that increased energy efficiency reduces total energy demand, which means that the same amount of renewable energy represents a higher share total energy generation (…) The publication assesses these synergies for the largest energy users: China, Germany, India, Japan, and the US. It finds that for all five countries, RE/EE strategies are more cost effective than isolated strategies…

Staff Report on Electricity Markets and Reliability. U.S. Department of Energy, Aug. 2017, 187 p. https://energy.gov/downloads/download-staff-report-secretary-electricity-markets-and-reliability

(…) The 187-page study, commissioned by Energy Secretary Rick Perry in April, recommends that federal regulators make changes to wholesale electricity markets that could potentially benefit existing coal and nuclear plants. Revenues for many of these facilities have slumped in recent years as electricity prices have declined, mostly because of cheap natural gas, the study said, but also as a result of low electricity demand growth and the rise of wind and solar power… suite de l’article du New York Times

A prospective economic assessment of residential PV self-consumption with batteries and its effects, and the implications for public policies : the french case in 2030 / Hyun Jin Julie YU. Paris : Chaire European electricity markets, Paris Dauphine, June 2017, 32 p. (Working Paper #27) http://www.ceem-dauphine.org/assets/dropbox/CEEM_Working_Paper_27_Hyun_Jin_Julie_YU.pdf

Over the last decade, the price of PV modules has fallen largely due to the globalisation of the PV sector. If residential PV systems coupled with batteries become economically competitive in the near future, end-users will be willing to switch to the self-consumption of PV electricity instead of using power from the network. If the transition of PV self-consumption in the residential sector occurs massively or suddenly, the national energy system would be faced with a radical change. This article analyses the economic feasibility of French residential PV systems combined with Li-ion batteries in 2030 to anticipate the possible change in future energy systems. It also includes a stakeholder analysis with respect to the PV self-consumption model to analyse the systemic effects of PV integration into the electricity system. Our study provides a theoretical explanation of the impact on the current electricity market and quantifies the expected impact on the most influential stakeholder group. The ultimate objective is to help policymakers forecast possible scenarios for PV self-consumption so they can prepare for the future transition with strategic actions. By way of conclusion, we discuss the policy implications and elaborate policy recommendations based on the results of this study.

Is electricity affordable and reliable for all in Vietnam ? / Minh Ha-Duong et Hoai Son Nguyen. Paris : Cired, July 2017, 37 p. (WP n°65) http://www2.centre-cired.fr/IMG/pdf/cired_wp_2017_65_ha_duong.pdf

Access to clean and affordable energy for all is the seventh sustainable development goal. This manuscript examines the state of access to electricity for all in Vietnam, based on national households’ surveys conducted in the time period 2008-2014. We find that in Vietnam, the problem of providing access to clean energy for all is largely solved for now: the fraction of households without access to electricity is below two percent, the median level of electricity usage in 2014 was 100 kWh per month per household, the fraction of households declaring unsatisfied electricity needs is below three percent. We find that electricity is becoming a heavier burden in Vietnamese households’ finances. In 2010, the electricity bill exceeded 6% of income for 2.4% of households, but in 2014 that number reached 5.5% of households. In practical terms, we discuss the challenge of a socially just increase of electricity tariff, necessary to finance a clean development of energy system. Our theoretical contribution to debates on energy poverty is to account for the human dimension by using a self-reported satisfaction indicator. Our study shows that subjective energy poverty indicators –designed from surveys asking people if they had enough electricity to meet their households needs– are as relevant as objective indicators –from engineering or economic data. While objectivity is laudable, development is not only about technology and money: measuring human satisfaction matters.

Subventions à l’efficacité énergétique : passer d’un régime ad valorem à un régime spécifique / Philippe Quirion et Louis-Gaëtan Giraudet. Paris : Cired, June2017 (WP n°63) http://www2.centre-cired.fr/IMG/pdf/cired_wp_2017_63_quirion_giraudet.pdf

En France, les subventions à l’efficacité énergétique sont nombreuses et variées. La plupart sont de type ad valorem – proportionnelles au prix du bien ou service ciblé, comme le Crédit d’impôt pour la transition énergétique (CITE), la TVA à taux réduit pour la rénovation thermique des bâtiments, l’écoprêt à taux zéro (éco-PTZ) et les aides de l’Agence nationale pour l’amélioration de l’habitat (ANAH). Nous proposons plusieurs arguments en faveur d’une évolution vers un régime de subventions « spécifiques » c’est-à-dire indépendantes du prix de vente. Par rapport à ces dernières, les subventions ad valorem présentent quatre inconvénients : elles génèrent plus de dépenses publiques, distordent la qualité des biens, profitent davantage aux ménages les plus aisés et incitent davantage à la fraude.



Citer ce billet
Danièle Revel (2017, 25 août). Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (vendredi 25 août 2017). Veille énergie climat. Consulté le 17 juin 2024, à l’adresse https://doi.org/10.58079/ocn7

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