Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (12/02/2018)

Has Algeria Suffered from the Dutch Disease? Evidence from 1960-2016 Data / Farid Gasmi and Imène Laourari, Revue d’économie politique, vol. 127, n° 6, 2017, pp. 1029 à 1058 https://www.cairn.info/revue-d-economie-politique-2017-6-p-1029.htm

The Algerian economy is strongly dependent on oil exports. Following the 1986 oil counter-shock, Algeria has experienced a persistent decline of its manufacturing sector. Although it has benefited from high oil prices over the last decades and implemented a myriad of economic reforms, this country has failed to develop its manufacturing sector and diversify its economy. One of the main mechanisms through which fluctuations in oil prices can constitute an impediment to the development of the manufacturing sector, and hence to long-term growth, in an economy that heavily relies on a natural resource exports is referred to in the literature as the Dutch disease. This paper aims to test whether or not Algeria’s economy has suffered from the main symptoms of this syndrome by analyzing data covering more than half-a-century. More specifically, we use a 1960-2016 annual database to investigate two important implications of this phenomenon that occur following an oil boom, namely, the spending effect and the resource movement effect. We perform some simple tests of these signs of the Dutch disease using the Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach while controlling for some other factors that could have led to similar economic symptoms. The results do not allow us to unambiguously claim that the Algerian economy has suffered from the Dutch disease over the period spanned by our data, which suggests further inquiry about the causes of the low degree of diversification of the Algerian economy.

The Energy Transition Agenda: An Economic Perspective / Katheline Schubert, Revue d’économie politique, vol. 127, n° 6, 2017, pp. 965-983 https://www.cairn.info/revue-d-economie-politique-2017-6-p-965.htm

The objective of this paper, drawn from my Presidential address at the 2016 AFSE conference, is twofold. First, it is to convince the readers that the energy transition, from a present where we massively burn polluting fossil fuels that contribute greatly to global warming, to a future where we would be able to obtain our energy from carbon-free resources, is inevitable, and cannot wait. Second, it is to examine whether it is a good idea – or not – to use shale gas as a bridge fuel allowing the world to escape from coal while buying time to make the technological innovations indispensable for the deployment of clean renewable energies on a large scale.

 Is there a Link between Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth? A Dynamic Panel Investigation for the OECD Countries /Iuliana Matei, Revue d’économie politique, vol. 127, n° 6, 2017, pp. 985 à 1012 https://www.cairn.info/revue-d-economie-politique-2017-6.htm

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for 34 OECD countries, for the period 1990-2014. Using recent panel data techniques, outcomes show that increases in real GDP have a positive and statistically significant effect on renewable and non-renewable energy consumption (and vice-versa) only in the long run. In the short-run, the impacts differ according to the source of energy (energy coming from renewable or non-renewable sources). They show evidence for a bi-directional causality only between non-renewable energy consumption and GDP growth. The renewable sources are negatively influenced by an increase in the real GDP growth in the OECD sub-samples. Overall, the results validate the feed-back hypothesis in the case of non-renewable sources of energy in both, the short-run and the long-run. Regarding the renewable energy sources, findings validate the conservation hypothesis in the short-run, and the feed-back hypothesis in the long-run. As policy implications, governments should address growth and the expansion of renewable energy sector in a simultaneous way. This is possible by financing R & D investment in promising renewable technologies and related infrastructure networks in order to make renewable energy sources more competitive than fossil fuels, and also by promoting regional cooperation, development for clean-energy efficiency between countries.

UK Electricity Market Reform and the Energy Transition: Emerging Lessons / Michael Grubb and David Newbery. Cambridge : Energy Policy Research Group, Feb. 2018, 44 p. https://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/sites/default/files/UK_Electricity_Market_Reform_and_the_Energy_Transition_Michael_Grubb.pdf

This paper seeks to:
• summarise briefly the evolution of the UK electricity system, including the underlying institutional and political context;
• explain the basic reasons why the UK embarked on its EMR – the key intellectual debates and institutional proponents;
• explain the basic structure of the EMR package as finally defined in the 2013 legislation;
• present the results to date, focusing primarily on the results of contracts issued and auctions held through to mid-2017;
• draw initial lessons, addressing concerns that the EMR represents a ‘return to central planning’.

Finally, we reflect on the future challenges and prospects for evolution of the UK electricity market structure.

Energy Transition in Europe / Colette Lewiner, Réalités industrielles, n°1, 2018, pp. 46-49 https://www.cairn.info/revue-realites-industrielles-2018-1-p-46.htm

Successive European legislative packages, as well as subsidized renewables deployment, impacted on electricity markets, which became unstable with concerns about security of supply. These packages also failed to deliver what was their first objective – benefits for end-users – as the latter are paying for renewables subsidies through higher electricity prices.
Reforms are needed and the article analyses the new European legislative package issued and suggests more actions to restore a sustained market.
It analyses also the main technology progress that have enabled wind and solar energy spectacular costs reductions and the drivers for future costs decreases. Combined with competitive mass storage development and digitalization technologies, those lower cost renewables should get in the future a significant share of the electricity mix contributing to decarbonized energy consumption.
Nuclear energy is a good dispatchable, carbon free complement and should not be shut down, except for safety reasons.

L’Europe, la Méditerranée et l’énergie / Antoine-Tristan Mocilnikar, Réalités industrielles, n°1, 2018, pp. 16-23 https://www.cairn.info/revue-realites-industrielles-2018-1.htm

Notre civilisation s’est forgée autour de la Méditerranée. Cette dernière est aujourd’hui au carrefour de tous les intérêts. Pour l’Union européenne, la question méditerranéenne constitue un défi intérieur avant d’être un enjeu de politique étrangère. L’avenir de nos relations au sein de cet espace est donc une construction historique qui détermine en partie l’avenir de l’Europe. Nous examinerons ici la question énergétique, qui reste au centre des problématiques de développement, de sécurité, de souveraineté et de géopolitique. C’est clairement un domaine propice à la mise en place de partenariats. L’Europe, avec ses voisins méditerranéens, peut clairement en faire une carte maîtresse. Mais elle n’est pas la seule dans le jeu.

Reorienting finance towards energy efficiency: the case of UK housing / Noam Bergman, Timothy J Foxon. Brighton : SPRU, Jan. 2018, 27 p. http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/documents/2018-05-swps-bergman-and-foxon.pdf

This paper examines the challenges associated with stimulating large-scale investment in energy efficiency and demand management measures, using residential energy efficiencyimproving retrofits in the UK as a case study. We consider how issues of energy policy, consumer choice and financial systems intersect, drawing on recent literature including energy policy documents and research reports, and on interviews with stakeholders from the finance sector, energy efficiency practitioners and more. We suggest that following the withdrawal of the Green Deal, there is a need to reconsider the framing of policy for household energy efficiency improvements, and examine three potential aspects of a new framing: energy efficiency as infrastructure; new business and financing models for energy efficiency provision; and decentralised financing institutions for energy efficiency investment This would require a long-term commitment from government on energy efficiency, and a need to ensure that projects are attractive and investable from both householders and investors’ perspectives. We conclude that there are important roles for government in any large scale initiative for energy efficient retrofitting of UK homes, even if the mechanisms are market based. These includes signalling long-term policy consistency and reducing risks for financial investment, and intermediating between finance and energy efficiency projects.

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