Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (30/04/2018)
Least-cost distribution network tariff design in theory and practice / Leonardo Meeus and Tim Schittekatte. Florence : Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (RSCAS), April 2018, 35 p. http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/53804/RSCAS_2018_19.pdf
In this paper a game-theoretical model with self-interest pursuing consumers is introduced to assess how to design a least-cost distribution tariff under two constraints that regulators typically face. The first constraint is related to difficulties regarding the implementation of cost-reflective tariffs. In practice, so-called cost-reflective tariffs are only a proxy for the actual cost driver(s) in distribution grids. The second constraint has to do with fairness. There is a fear that active consumers investing in distributed energy resources (DER) might benefit at the expense of passive consumers. We find that both constraints have a significant impact on the least-cost network tariff design, and the results depend on the state of the grid. If most of the grid investments still have to be made, passive and active consumers can both benefit from cost-reflective tariffs, while this is not the case for passive consumers if the costs are mostly sunk.
Cross subsidies across network users: renewable self-consumption / C. Clastres, J. Percebois, O. Rebenaque & B. Solier. Paris: Climate Economics Chair, April 2018, 31 p. (Working paper N°2018 – 05) https://www.chaireeconomieduclimat.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/WP-2018-05.pdf
The deployment of renewable energies relies upon incentive policies to make their use profitable for owner. However, their development needs adjustments of network to manage intermittency and additional energy fed into the grid. Moreover, the Public Service Obligation Tariffs (PSOT) are increasing to fund policies that support renewable energy deployment. Therefore, some decisions are taken to promote self-consumption by owners of renewable energy power plants, as photovoltaic prosumers. This behavior is encouraged by payment exemptions of PSOT, special tariffs dedicated to remunerate each self-consumed energy unit or savings on the variable part of the network tariff. Thus, some cross-subsidies appear between self-consumers and other users of the network to compensate all these previous self-consumers’ gains. We show that these cross-subsidies occur but they strongly rely on self-consumption rate and on renewable energy share in the total produced or consumed energy. So, currently, the levels of cross-subsidies are not significant for consumers. We also show that regulator could fund these cross-subsidies increasing the fixed part of the network tariff for prosumers.
Natural gas demand in Europe in 2017 and short term expectations / Anouk Honoré. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, April 2018, 18 p. (Oxford energy insight ; 35) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/natural-gas-demand-europe-2017-short-term-expectations/
Following a continuous decline between 2010 and 2014, natural gas demand in Europe started to rise again in 2015. The trend continued in 2016 and 2017 reaching 548 bcm. Final detailed statistics of gas demand by sector for 2017 will not be available for each of the 31 countries considered in the paper for several months but it seems that, as in the two previous years, a combination of drivers explain the rising numbers: the impact of temperatures, continued economic recovery, and increasing gas deliveries to the power sector. This short paper provides a brief overview of the main dynamics that have impacted gas demand in Europe in 2017 and identifies key drivers for future demand in the next five years.
Chile’s energy regulator to use Blockchain /
The Chilean National Energy Commission will become the country’s first public entity to adopt such technology, which it will begin to use in March.
Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition / Rabia Ferroukhi, Paolo Frankl and Christine Lins. IEA, IRENA, and REN21, April 2018, 112 p. http://irena.org/publications/2018/Apr/Renewable-energy-policies-in-a-time-of-transition
Policy frameworks need to take a systems approach with more fully integrated policies across sectors if we are serious about achieving the energy transition. The two key conclusions of the report are : Measures are needed to support the integration of variable renewable energy Policies need to be more comprehensive than those devised for the energy sector alone.