Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (6/09/2018)

Recommendations For Accounting for Mitigation Components of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) Under the Paris Agreement / Kelly Levin, David Rich and Cynthia Elliott. Washingon : World Resources Institute, September 2018, 64 p. https://www.wri.org/publication/recommendations-accounting-mitigation-components-nationally-determined-contributions

This paper discusses the development of the accounting guidance under the Paris Agreement. The recommendations in this paper draw from the approaches contained in the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Mitigation Goal Standard, developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI) through a multistakeholder process, building on existing accounting guidance under the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. It was developed to provide further guidance on accounting for mitigation targets in the absence of more comprehensive guidance under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper provides recommendations for developing accounting guidance under the Paris Agreement that can be applied to the variety of mitigation components in Parties’ NDCs. It outlines key decisions to be made regarding NDC accounting and reporting of accounting-related information and provides approaches to address those issues.

Global climate action from cities, regions, and busnesses: research report / Angel Hsu, Amy Weinfurter, Andrew Feierman, Yihao Xie, Zhi Yi Yeo, Katharina Lütkehermöller, Takeshi Kuramochi, Swithin Lui, Niklas Höhne, Mark Roelfsema. Data Driven Yale, New Climate Institute, PBL Environmental Assessment Agency, 2018, 106 p. http://datadriven.yale.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/YALE-NCI-PBL_Global_climate_action.pdf

Pledges by cities, states, and businesses to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions can have a significant impact toward meeting goals set in the Paris Climate Agreement, but local action alone is not enough to keep global temperature increases below 2 degrees Celsius, according to a new report. The study took into account the climate commitments made by nearly 6,000 cities, states, and regions, representing seven percent of the global population. It also included the pledges from more than 2,000 companies whose combined revenue — more than $21 trillion — was nearly the size of the United States’ economy… lire la suite sur Yale Environment 360

Unlocking the inclusive growth story of the 21st century: accelerating climate action in urgent time / collectif. Brookings Institution, Energy Transitions Commission (ETC), Coalition for Urban Transitions, Food and Land Use Coalition (FOLU), Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), SYSTEMIQ, and World Resources Institute (WRI). New Climate Economy, Aug. 2018, 208 p. https://newclimateeconomy.report/2018/

The growth story of the 21st century can unlock unprecedented opportunities of a strong, sustainable, inclusive economy. The benefits of climate action are greater than ever before, while the costs of inaction continue to mount. It is time for a decisive shift to a new climate economy…

Hazed and Confused: The Effect of Air Pollution on Dementia / Kelly C. Bishop, Jonathan D. Ketcham, Nicolai V. Kuminoff, NBER Working Paper No. 24970, August 2018 – DRAFT

We test whether long-term exposure to air pollution degrades human capital by causing dementia. We link fifteen years of Medicare records for 6.9 million adults age 65 and older to the EPA’s air quality monitoring network and track the evolution of individuals’ health, onset of dementia, financial decisions, and cumulative residential exposure to fine-particulate air pollution (PM2.5). Our instrumental variables framework capitalizes on quasi-random variation in pollution exposure due to the EPA’s 2005 designation of nonattainment counties for PM2.5. We find that a 1 microgram-per-cubic-meter increase in average decadal exposure (9.1% of the mean) increases the probability of receiving a dementia diagnosis by 1.3 percentage points (6.7% of the mean). This finding is consistent with hypotheses from the medical literature. We conclude that regulation of air pollution has greater benefits than previously known, in part because dementia impairs financial decision making. We estimate that the dementia-related benefits of the EPA’s county nonattainment designations exceeded $150 billion. We also find that the effect of PM2.5 on dementia persists below current regulatory thresholds.

Self-Enforcing International Environmental Agreements: Adaptation and Complementarity / Santiago J. Rubio. Milan : Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Aug. 2018, 57 p. (Nota di Lavoro 29.2018) https://www.feem.it/en/publications/feem-working-papers-note-di-lavoro-series/self-enforcing-international-environmental-agreements-adaptation-and-complementarity/

This paper studies the impact of adaptation on the stability of an international emission agreement. To address this issue we solve a three-stage coalition formation game where in the first stage countries decide whether or not to sign the agreement. Then, in the second stage, signatories (playing together) and non-signatories (playing individually) select their levels of emissions. Finally, in the third stage, each country decides on its level of adaptation non co-operatively. We solve this game for two models. For both, it is assumed that damages are linear with respect to emissions which guarantee that emissions are strategic complements in the second stage of the game. However, for the first model adaptation reduces the marginal damages of emissions in a multiplicative way whereas for the second model the reduction occurs in an additive way. Our analysis shows that the models yield different predictions in terms of participation. In the first case, we find that the larger the gains of full cooperation, the larger the cooperation. However, in the second case, the unique stable agreement we find consists of three countries regardless of the gains of full cooperation. These results suggest that complementarity can play in favor of cooperation but that it is not a sufficient condition to obtain more participation in an emission agreement. Finally, we would like to point out that our research indicates that the way adaptation reduces damages plays a critical role over the outcome of the coalition formation game.


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