Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (20/09/2018)

Effective carbon rates 2018: Pricing carbon emissions through taxes and emissions trading. Paris : OECD, September 2018 http://www.oecd.org/tax/effective-carbon-rates-2018-9789264305304-en.htm

Decarbonisation keeps climate change in check and contributes to cleaner air and water. Countries can price CO2-emissions to decarbonise their economies and steer them along a carbon-neutral growth path. Are countries using this tool to its full potential? This report measures carbon pricing of CO2-emissions from energy use in 42 OECD and G20 countries, covering 80% of world emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. The ‘carbon pricing gap’ measures how much the 42 countries, together as well as individually, fall short of pricing emissions in line with levels needed for decarbonisation. On aggregate, the ‘carbon pricing gap’ indicates how advanced the 42 countries are with the implementation of market-based tools to decarbonise their economies. At the country level, the gap can be seen as an indicator of long-run competitiveness.

Evaluation des changements comportementaux induits par l’organisation d’un challenge de la mobilité : analyse des résultats et guide méthodologique. Ademe, juillet 2018 – 72 + 37 p. https://www.ademe.fr/evaluation-changements-comportementaux-induits-lorganisation-dun-challenge-mobilite

L es challenges de la mobilité, outils de promotion et de sensibilisation, permettent aux entreprises d’encourager leurs salariés à se rendre au travail autrement que seuls dans leur voiture (en utilisant les transports en commun, le covoiturage, le vélo, la marche, ou en ayant recours au télétravail, etc.). Si les entreprises sont de plus en plus favorables à déployer ces outils, il n’existait pas d’accompagnement pour évaluer de manière systématique l’impact des challenges de la mobilité sur les changements de comportement et encore moins sur la pérennité de ces changements.
L’ADEME a souhaité proposer une méthodologie réplicable à partir de l’évaluation de trois Challenges de la mobilité (Technopôle de Sophia-Antipolis : Région Hauts de France ; Tisséo sur l’agglomération toulousaine). Outre l’évaluation en tant que telle de chacun des trois Challenges, ce travail a permis de proposer des indicateurs de suivi, de construire une méthode de récolte de données, et d’identifier les impératifs pour obtenir une évaluation pertinente.

The EU ETS phase IV reform: implications for system functioning and for the carbon price signal / Stefano De Clara, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, September 2018, 18 p. (Oxford Energy Insight: 38) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/eu-ets-phase-iv-reform-implications-system-functioning-carbon-price-signal/

The European Commission launched the revision process for phase IV of the EU ETS in 2015, at a moment when the carbon price generated by the system was at a relative low, compared to previous levels and expectations. The final agreement on the revision package, adopted in early 2018, defines the EU ETS rules for the next decade. This paper aims to look at what the current outlook for the EU ETS in phase IV is. It will do so by examining the history and functioning of the EU ETS to date, by outlining the main elements of the phase IV reform, as proposed by the European Commission and as subsequently amended in the course of the legislative process, and their effects on the system. The paper will end by offering an outlook on the future of the EU ETS.

Raising Ambition – Zero carbon scenarios from across the glob / Paul Allen and Isabel Bottoms. Centre for Alternative Technology, 2018, 53 p. http://www.zerocarbonbritain.org/en/

The report brings together an international range of scenarios exploring climate-stable futures at global, regional, national and sub-national scales…


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