Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (16/10/2018)

Tackling energy, climate and development challenges in Africa /
Shingirirai S. Mutanga, Rainer Quitzow, and Jan Christoph Steckel. Economics e-journal, No. 2018-61, October 12, 2018, 15 p. http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/journalarticles/2018-61

In order to fulfill multiple sustainable development targets, most prominently human development, poverty eradication and climate change mitigation, African countries need infrastructure that cover basic needs while at the same time promote industrialization and value creation. G20 countries can support African countries by: (1) aligning and cementing the G20 Agenda for Africa with African initiatives, SDGs and the Paris Agreement, (2) mitigating economic risks of climate change through supporting low carbon development pathways in Africa, (3) incentivizing low carbon development by phasing out subsidies and eventually putting a price on carbon and (4) creating and enabling a level playing field for low carbon technologies, which includes integrated strategies for de-risking renewable energy investments.

System contributions of residential battery systems: new perspectives on PV self-consumption / Hyun Jin Julie Yu. Chaire European Electricity Markets, 2/10/2018, 37 p. (working paper n° 34) http://www.ceem-dauphine.org/working/fr/SYSTEM-CONTRIBUTIONS-OF-RESIDENTIAL-BATTERY-SYSTEMS-NEW-PERSPECTIVES-ON-PV-SELF-CONSUMPTION

The market dynamics of the PV sector and coupled Li-ion batteries are likely to enhance the economics of residential PV self-consumption in the near future. When PV self-consumption systems become economically competitive, end-users will be willing to switch to PV self-consumption instead of using power from the grid. However, the large penetration of PV systems in the electricity mix provokes systemic effects (e.g. additional costs related to the integration of PV into the existing electricity system). The majority of the systemic costs concern the back-up power system associated with variable PV integration. These costs vary from one country to another because of the different energy profiles. France has higher back-up power costs compared with other regions (e.g. California) since France’s annual electricity consumption peaks occur in the winter evenings. This means that the massive and rapid integration of PV without systemic strategies can affect the energy system and stakeholders. In this context, this study proposes an innovative grid service model based on the secondary application of residential batteries installed for PV self-consumption. Our optimization model to minimize the cost of residential PV self-consumption deployment at the system level is based on the strategic utilization of residential batteries when they are not in use in the winter months. Our study identifies potential opportunities for the strategic utilization of residential battery systems in France to reduce systemic costs in line with the large diffusion of PV self-consumption in the future. Our study also identifies optimal grid service conditions and evaluates the extent to which this model can reduce PV integration efforts (e.g. balancing and seasonal back-up capacities). We performed an economic analysis to calculate the savings made in terms of PV integration costs and the benefits resulting from the secondary use of batteries. Our study then concludes with several key messages and policy recommendations to prepare the proper institutional and political strategies.

On the efficiency of decentralized decision-making in self-dispatch power systems / Marie Petitet, Marie Perrot, Sébastien Mathieu, Damien Ernst and Yannick Phulpin. Chaire European Electricity Markets, 12/09/2018, 25 p. (working paper n° 33) http://www.ceem-dauphine.org/working/fr/ON-THE-EFFICIENCY-OF-DECENTRALIZED-DECISION-MAKING-IN-SELF-DISPATCH-POWER-SYSTEMS

This paper focuses on market design options for operational balancing management in self-dispatch electric power systems. In particular, it investigates the most relevant timing for the balancing gate closure, when competitors can no longer modify their decisions on the setting of controllable assets and when this responsibility is simultaneously transferred to the system operator. This discussion is central in the development and implementation of the European Electricity Balancing Guideline. Based on a multi-level simulation tool with a realistic modelling of short-term power system operations including informational asymmetry between market participants and the system operator, this paper proposes the first quantitative assessment of reducing the balancing gate closure time from one hour to 15 minutes ahead of the imbalance settlement period. For different environments (energy mix, power plant capabilities, outages, etc…), the results highlight that postponing the balancing gate closure time from one hour to 15 minutes increases the operational cost of the system. Based on robust and scalable results, we show that this difference is mainly due to a better coordination of the available resources by the central decision maker.

Rente pétrolière et disparité des revenus au Tchad / Djal-Gadom Gadom, Sikod Fondo, Armand Totouom, Mondes en développement, n° 183, pp. 71-90 https://www.cairn.info/revue-mondes-en-developpement-2018-3-p-71.htm

Cet article analyse l’influence des ressources pétrolières sur les inégalités au Tchad entre 2003, date de début de l’exploitation pétrolière et 2011. Les résultats des analyses menées indiquent un creusement des inégalités au niveau national, avec un coefficient de Gini ayant augmenté de 17% sur la période. La décomposition de l’indice de Gini en sous-groupes effectuée montre que les inégalités interrégionales ont augmenté. En outre, les résultats économétriques suggèrent qu’une augmentation de 1% des revenus pétroliers contribue à augmenter les inégalités de 0,09%. Cette augmentation des inégalités est d’autant plus importante que la répartition des revenus pétroliers coïncide avec des considérations d’ordre politique.

Renewables 2018: Analysis and Forecasts to 2023. Paris : AIE, oct. 2018, 211 p. https://webstore.iea.org/market-report-series-renewables-2018

The electricity sector remains the brightest spot for renewables with the exponential growth of solar photovoltaics and wind in recent years, and building on the significant contribution of hydropower generation. But, electricity accounts for only a fifth of global energy consumption, and the role of renewables in the transportation and heating sectors remains critical to the energy transition. This is why Renewables 2018, the annual IEA market analysis and forecast on renewable energy, takes an in-depth look at bioenergy, the largest source of renewable energy globally. Often overlooked, the contribution of sustainable bioenergy represents a “blind spot” in the global debate about renewables. Bioenergy makes a significant contribution across the energy system, particularly in the heat and transport sectors. In addition to looking at renewable energy across the entire energy system, Renewables 2018 provides a detailed market analysis and overview of renewables in the electricity, heat and transport sectors as well as forecasts for the period between 2018 and 2023. The report also highlights policy and market improvements that can unlock further growth of renewable energy in electricity and transport biofuels, as well as underlines the untapped potential of sustainable bioenergy and other renewable sources in greening the industry and transport sectors. For the first time, Renewables 2018 also includes a chapter dedicated to answering some of the key questions raised by the latest developments in renewable energy markets.

Power-to-Gas: Linking Electricity and Gas in a Decarbonising World? / Martin Lambert, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, October 2018, 17 p. https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/power-gas-linking-electricity-gas-decarbonising-world/

Since the COP 21 meeting in Paris in December 2015, there has been a growing realisation that with the long-term objective that the energy system should be approaching carbon-neutrality by 2050, continuing to burn significant quantities of fossil-derived natural gas will not be sustainable. If existing natural gas infrastructure is to avoid becoming stranded assets, plans to decarbonise the gas system need to be developed as a matter of urgency in the next three to five years, given the typical life expectancy of such assets of 20 years or more. One of the options to decarbonise gas is “power-to-gas”: production of hydrogen or renewable methane via electrolysis, using surplus renewable electricity. This Energy Insight reviews the status of power-to-gas and makes an assessment of potential future development pathways and the role which it could play in decarbonising the energy system.


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