Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (21/12/2018)

Less is more in energy conservation and efficiency messaging / Katherine Farrow, Gilles Grolleau and Naoufel Mzoughi, Energy Policy, vol. 22, Nov. 2018, pp. 1-6 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421518304531

Campaigns aiming to encourage people to reduce their energy consumption frequently make three well-intentioned but inadvertent mistakes in their communications strategies. These mistakes are driven by a deeply embedded yet often counterproductive popular intuition: that ‘more is better.’ We identify three messaging pitfalls that can result from this assumption, namely that a message will be more persuasive if it emphasizes the greatest number of people engaging in undesirable behavior, the greatest number of victims of such behavior, and the greatest number of reasons why one should adopt particular energy conservation and efficiencymeasures. We cite experimental evidence demonstrating that these strategies can in fact reduce the persuasive power of a message, and review several underlying psychological mechanisms that may explain these counterproductive effects. Finally, we provide a number of alternative messaging strategies that are likely to improve the performance of energy conservation campaigns.

WEO 2018 Special Report Outlook for Producer Economies. Paris : IEA, 2018 https://webstore.iea.org/weo-2018-special-report-outlook-for-producer-economies

For resource rich-economies, the high reliance on hydrocarbon revenues, coupled with the risk of fluctuations in prices, creates well-known pitfalls. The current market and policy environment is adding to these uncertainties, with questions surrounding the impact of the shale revolution in the short term, along with longer-term structural questions about the outlook for demand. In response to these changing conditions, many major producers are displaying a renewed commitment to reform and economic diversification.
This analysis provides a comprehensive assessment of how the prospects for major oil and gas producer economies evolve in various scenarios to 2040

Network tariff design with prosumers and electromobility: who wins, who loses ? / Quentin Hoarau and Yannick Perez. Chaire économie du climat, décembre 2018, 22 p. (working paper ; 10) https://www.chaireeconomieduclimat.org/publications/network-tariff-design-with-prosumers-and-electromobility-who-wins-who-loses/

Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), mostly in the form of solar photovoltaic (PV) or lithium-ion batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as three disruptive innovations in power grids. Recent studies have pointed out the potential synergies between these technologies, while others have studied the difficulty to design adequate network tariff when some consumers can adopt DERs (prosumers). In this paper, we fill gaps in both strands of the literature by investigating the combined effect of DERs and EVs on grid cost recovery.
To study these effects, we use a bi-level model that captures the conflict between a regulator and the network users. In the lower level, prosumers can react to tariff changes by installing DERs and by adapting their EV charging. In the upper level, the regulator sets network tariffs by enforcing the total grid costs recovery and anticipating the prosuming behaviors of network users. We study how the levels of EV penetration and prosuming affect tariffs. The influence of the tariff structure is also investigated. First, we find that grid cost recovery concerns caused by load-defecting prosumers installing DER can be balanced by the diffusion of EVs in the network. Second, we highlight that EVs and DERs adoptions are conflicting through the network tariff design. In particular, we find that the more a tariff structure gives incentives for DERs, the less beneficial it is for EVs, and vice versa.

Shrinking surplus: the outlook for Russia’s spare gas productive capacity / Vitaly Yermakov, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, December 2018, 24 p. (Energy Insight: 42) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/shrinking-surplus-outlook-russias-spare-gas-productive-capacity/

The concept that Russia has a huge amount of spare gas production capacity has been a key theme for the European gas market since 2012, when Gazprom’s long-anticipated launch of the Bovanenkovo field on the Yamal peninsula coincided with a fall in demand for its gas at home and abroad.  The result was that Russia had at maximum around 200bcm of spare capacity on an annual basis, providing it with huge supply flexibility and a large source of gas available at low short-run marginal cost. However, since 2016 the situation has started to change on the demand side. The rapidly increasing call on Gazprom’s gas in Europe in 2017-18, along with some recovery in Russia’s domestic gas consumption, have increased demand for Gazprom’s gas.  The supply side responded, but the ramp-up of production at Russia’s new gas fields to planned levels and higher output at balancing fields in response to higher demand have reduced the cushion of spare productive capacity.  At the same time, the natural decline of production at older gas fields has been taking its toll, so that by the end of 2018 worries about the availability of Russian gas for meeting peak demand on a seasonal basis have returned. This paper outlines the key dynamics that are changing the balance and assesses the future risks.

Le solaire brille déjà, Journal du CNRS, 18/12/2018 https://lejournal.cnrs.fr/articles/le-solaire-brille-deja

En 2018, les capacités de production d’énergie photovoltaïque ont bondi de près de 20%. Si la Chine est en tête de la course au solaire, la recherche française reste à la pointe des technologies de rupture. À l’occasion de l’inauguration de l’Institut photovoltaïque d’Île-de-France, le 18 décembre 2018 à Saclay, le point sur une épopée scientifique et industrielle…

Les réseaux électriques au service des véhicules électriques. Commission de régulation de l’énergie, octobre 2018, 44 p. https://www.cre.fr/Actualites/Les-reseaux-electriques-au-service-des-vehicules-electriques

En France, les transports représentent un tiers de la consommation d’énergie et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre.  La mobilité se présente donc comme un enjeu majeur de la transition énergétique. Les objectifs très ambitieux fixés par la loi de transition énergétique affichent 7 millions de points de recharge sur les réseaux d’électricité pour accueillir les 4 millions de véhicules électriques et hybrides prévus en 2030.
Consciente de ces enjeux, la CRE est convaincue qu’il est indispensable de préparer le terrain dès à présent. Le développement des véhicules électriques s’intensifie, les réseaux électriques doivent y être préparés. C’est pourquoi la CRE a lancé en 2018 une vaste réflexion sur le rôle des réseaux d’électricité au service des véhicules électriques. Pendant plusieurs mois, les services ont rencontré une cinquantaine d’acteurs, organisé un forum, trois ateliers de travail et interrogé leurs homologues européens. Forte de tous ces échanges, la CRE publie aujourd’hui les premières conclusions et pistes d’études issues de ce chantier en vue d’éclairer le débat public, et notamment les discussions autour du projet de loi d’orientation des mobilités.

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