Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (10/01/2019)
Repenser les modèles français et allemand d’autoconsommation / Sacha Bentolila, Albert Ferrari, Benoit Plou et Rodi Téginère. Paris : Eurocité. groupe Énergie, décembre 2018, 6 p. http://eurocite.eu/slider/repenser-les-modeles-francais-et-allemand-dautoconsommation/
L’autoconsommation, qui consiste à consommer l’énergie que l’on produit, apparait comme un élément possible de gestion de la transition vers des formes d’énergies plus durables et respectueuses de l’environnement. Quels sont les modèles existants pour les particuliers et les entreprises, et comment sera-t-il possible de les développer dans les années qui viennent ? Ces modèles présentent-ils des risques économiques ou environnementaux pour ceux qui les adoptent, et comment est-il possible de les mitiger ? Le groupe énergie d’EuroCité se penche sur la question, et observe les modèles d’autoconsommation en France et en Allemagne, ainsi que les perspectives d’avenir pour ce secteur prometteur.
Network connection schemes fr renewable energy in France: a spatial analysis / Cyril Martin de Lagarde. Chaire European electricity markets, Univ. Paris Dauphine, Dec. 2018, 30 p. (Working Paper #37) http://www.ceem-dauphine.org/assets/dropbox/CEEM_Working_Paper_37_Cyril_Martin_de_Lagarde.pdf
Regional network connection schemes for renewable energy sources (RES) have been set in France in order to avoid “large” (i.e. > 100 kW) RES producers to pay deep-cost connection charges, that were seen as a brake on the development of renewable energy, and to give a locational price signal to RES projects developers. Using a unique database of connection applications by wind producers to the main French DSO’s (Enedis) network, we develop a spatial panel model that captures the effect of this innovative regulation as well as spatial dependences of the variables. Thus, we show that the schemes have managed to redirect connection requests towards less constrained regions without altering the global level of connections, and that spatial substitution occurred between regions. On average, an increase of the network charge of e/kW in a region reduces quarterly connection requests by 300 kW in the region while increasing them by 138 kW in the neighbouring ones. Finally, we show that the diffusion of wind energy exhibits an “epidemic” effect, i.e. there is a positive impact of the number of past installations on the number of connection requests.
Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty / Rafael Leal-Arcas. Queen Mary University of London – School of Law, 21/12/2018, 10 p. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3311124
The Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a unique article-by-article textual analysis of this important international agreement. The ECT provides a multilateral framework for cross-border co-operation in the energy sector based on the principles of open competitive markets and sustainable development. By binding governments to commitments that guarantee open markets, non-discrimination, and access for foreign investment, the ECT aims to strengthen the global rule of law on energy issues and, in doing so, reduce the risks associated with energy-related investment and trade. Expert contributors provide commentary and analysis on the five primary areas of the ECT: investment promotion and protection, trade, transit, environmental protection, and dispute settlement. The optional protocols are also addressed, including various issues such as energy efficiency and the environment. Clearly and logically organised, this commentary is an invaluable reference tool for those wanting to better understand the intricacies of the Treaty and its binding commitments. The Commentary will be an essential resource for practitioners, academics, and policymakers across the field of energy law and policy.
Opportunities for Gas in Sub-Saharan Africa / Mike Fulwood. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, january 2019, 24 p. (Oxford Energy Insight: 44) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/opportunities-gas-sub-saharan-africa/
Gas demand in Sub-Saharan Africa has largely been based on domestic production in specific countries such as Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire. Outside South Africa, Botswana, and Zimbabwe there is little or no coal-fired power generation for gas to compete with, as power generation is dominated by oil and hydro. This Insight considers the opportunities for gas to displace oil-fired generation in key markets and also to drive the growth in power generation as the region provides more access to electricity to its rapidly growing population. The gas is likely to come predominantly from domestic production but also by importing LNG, with many countries looking at import schemes. There are still many challenges to overcome including geopolitical issues, lack of clear regulatory frameworks, quality and reliability of electricity networks, tariffs and revenue collection and creditworthiness. Notwithstanding these issues, there may be opportunities for LNG to break into some markets, albeit not on the scale and timing of the new Asian markets.
Energy prices and costs in Europe 2018. European Commission, Jan. 2019, 14 p. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=COM:2019:1:FIN&from=EN
In January 2019 the European Commission published the third report on energy prices and costs in Europe. Published every two years, this most recent report finds that wholesale energy prices have fallen in recent years due to increasing competition on wholesale markets from greater amounts of renewable energy, improved interconnections and a more integrated internal electricity market… lire la suite