Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (26/02/2019)

Energy decentralization in the European Union / Rafael Leal-Arcas, Georgetown Environmental Law Review, Vol. 32.1, 2019 https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3333694

This article examines the status of energy decentralization in the European Union (EU). It discusses why it is in the EU’s interest to decentralize its energy markets and analyzes the situation in several EU member states. The article specifically focuses on electricity markets and looks at how decentralization is taking shape with regard to these markets. In doing so, it analyzes the regulatory environment in some EU jurisdictions to identify to what extent it is conducive to decentralization. It then looks at how things stand in terms of new tools and technologies to facilitate decentralization, such as smart grids and meters, electric vehicles, demand response, and storage. The article explores how specific EU member states are progressing towards deployment of these tools and technologies, and the specific needs and regulatory barriers in each. It also offers recommendations for how regulation can be more encouraging. The article in addition discusses electricity interconnections in the EU as a vital step towards decentralization that will boost energy security and energy efficiency. Lastly, the article includes a detailed examination of data protection concerns that arise from the advent of new technologies that collect personal information, such as smart grids. It assesses current regulation on data protection and identifies areas for improvement.

Towards energy democratization / Rafael Leal-Arcas, forthcoming in Colorado Natural Resources, Energy, and Environmental Law Review, Vol. 31 https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3339274

This article examines energy regulation in two European Union (EU) Scandinavian countries: Denmark and Sweden. The article analyzes regulation in both countries aimed at promoting renewable energy, increasing energy security, and achieving decentralization via technology such as smart meters and smart grids. The article also identifies current barriers to achieving these goals. Progress on electric vehicles is addressed as well as on storage systems. As data protection is a key concern with the advent of smart grids and smart meters, the article analyzes regulatory considerations regarding data privacy and protection, both at the EU level and specifically within Denmark and Sweden. The article provides recommendations for both countries, such as the need for further deregulation and greater financial commitments, among others.

Performances contrastées du développement des énergies renouvelables dans les régions françaises / Rafik Abdesselam, Patricia Renou-Maissant et Ferdaous Roussafi, Revue d’économie régionale et urbaine, janvier 2019, pp. 27-54 https://www.cairn.info/revue-d-economie-regionale-et-urbaine-2019-1-page-27.htm

La transition énergétique vers des énergies bas-carbone est aujourd’hui un paradigme dominant des politiques publiques liées à l’énergie. L’objectif de cet article est de proposer un état des lieux de la transition énergétique en France et plus précisément d’évaluer les performances des régions en matière de diversification du bouquet énergétique. Des méthodes d’analyse de données multidimensionnelles ont été employées. Une typologie des régions françaises caractéristique du développement régional des énergies renouvelables (Enr) en France en 2015 est proposée, elle met en évidence l’émergence de cinq profils types de développement des Enr très contrastés selon les filières d’Enr. Un large éventail de variables dites « thématiques », constituées de variables environnementales, économiques, démographiques, géographiques, climatiques et politiques permet d’enrichir la caractérisation des classes de régions.

Can Natural Gas be a catalyst to build a Lower-Carbon world? / Swati Dsouza. Brookings Institution, Infraline.com, Jan. 2019, 5 p. https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/can-natural-gas-be-a-catalyst-to-build-a-lower-carbon-world/

The short answer to the question is yes; natural gas can be and has already become a catalyst in some countries, which are transitioning to a low-carbon economy. The more important question though is can this model be replicated in other countries with gas as a catalyst? Several factors have been responsible in countries where natural gas has acted as a catalyst or ‘bridge’ fuel. Unlocking cheap gas supplies and new producers (conventional and unconventional), falling costs of Renewable Energy (RE), increasingly vocal concerns on climate change and dangers of exceeding the 20 C target, deteriorating air quality leading to a policy push are just some of the factors that have aided the shift. This, in essence, provides the short answer, and now let us dive a bit deeper. Emergence of the term ‘Bridge’ Fuel The term ‘bridge’ fuel came into vogue when the International Energy Agency (IEA) released its report on the ‘Golden Age of Gas’ in 2011. At the time of the release of this report, RE costs were still sufficiently high to make gas look like the best option to switch away from coal…

Auctions for allocation of offshore wind contracts for difference in the UK / Marijke Welisch and Rahmatallah Poudineh. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Feb. 2019, 20 p. (OIES Paper: EL 33) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/auctions-allocation-offshore-wind-contracts-difference-uk/

The contract for difference (CfD) auctions are the cornerstone of the UK electricity sector’s decarbonization policy and were introduced as part of the Electricity Market Reform in 2013. The CfD auctions appear to have been successful in achieving low bids for low-carbon technologies, especially offshore wind power. However, the design of the auction increases the probability of speculative bidding, while the one-shot nature of the auction prevents bidders from learning and from utilizing information efficiently. We show that implementing a stringent non-delivery penalty to induce truth telling can improve deployment rate without increasing support costs. Moreover, by holding regularly scheduled (annual, for example) auctions, information on technology cost decreases can be better incorporated into the bids, lowering investor uncertainty and thus having a positive effect on support costs.

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