Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (16/04/2019)

Interdépendance complexe et hybridation des modèles institutionnels nationaux : le cas des relations énergétiques UE-Russie / Catherine Locatelli et Mehdi Abbas. Grenoble : GAEL, mars 2019, 12 p. (Working paper n° 2/2019) https://gael.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/sites/gael/files/doc-recherche/WP/A2019/gael2019-02.pdf

Ce cahier de recherche vise à appliquer les problématisations des nouvelles approches de l’interdépendance (New Interdependence Approches – NIA selon l’acronyme anglais) aux enjeux relatifs à la régulation internationale de l’énergie et ce à partir d’un cas d’étude : la relation gazière entre l’UE et la Russie. Les interdépendances entre l’UE et ses fournisseurs extérieurs en matière de gaz naturel, au premier rang desquels figure la Russie, posent la question de la confrontation de préférences contradictoires des acteurs impliqués dans l’échange. L’interdépendance conflictuelle recèle un « effet transformatif » sur les régulations, les systèmes institutionnels et les politiques énergétiques de la Russie et de l’UE. Les deux modèles institutionnels font l’objet de changements incrémentaux porteurs de conséquences importantes. Dans l’interdépendance, la politique énergétique russe et les stratégies des acteurs russes se transforment pour faire place à un certain degré de concurrence. A l’inverse, il semble que de manière croissante celle de l’UE intègre des préoccupations d’ordre stratégique et d’économie politique qui ne se justifient pas par les seules considérations de création d’un marché unique et concurrentiel.

Biogas and Biomethane in Europe: Lessons from Denmark, Germany and Italy / Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega and Carole Mathieu, eds. Paris : Ifri, April 2019, 76 p. (Etudes) https://www.ifri.org/en/publications/etudes-de-lifri/biogas-and-biomethane-europe-lessons-denmark-germany-and-italy

At a time when the European Union (EU) is discussing its long-term climate strategy and drafting new legislation to foster the decarbonization of its gas sector, a close look at the experience of Denmark, Germany and Italy with renewable gas production can provide valuable lessons…

Russia’s heavy fuel oil exports: challenges and changing rules at home and abroad / Vitaly Yermakov, James Henderson, Bassam Fattouh. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, April 2019, 40 p. (OIES PAPER: WPM 80) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/russias-heavy-fuel-oil-exports-challenges-changing-rules-home-abroad/

The Russian refining system still has a significant legacy from its Soviet past, when refineries were located in relatively remote regions to serve the military and industrial complex and output of fuel oil was encouraged to supply heavy industry. However, this focus on the lower end of the barrel left a significant need for upgrading as Russia entered the post-Soviet era and demand for lighter products increased. The government has tried to provide a series of incentives to encourage Russia’s major oil companies to invest in upgrading. Differentiated tax rates, adjust of export tariffs, re-alignment of upstream and downstream taxes and even a command by the then Prime Minister Vladimir Putin that the industry must act to improve its performance have produced some results, particularly since 2015. Since then fuel oil output has declined rapidly, but with demand also falling Russia continues to produce a surplus..

The Limits of Auctions: reflections on the role of central purchaser auctions for long-term commitments in electricity systems / Malcolm Keay & David Robinson, Oxford Institute or Energy Studies, April 2019, 31 p. (OIES paper ; EL 34) https://www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/limits-auctions-reflections-role-central-purchaser-auctions-long-term-commitments-electricity-systems/

This paper looks at the deployment of auctions in electricity systems, and in particular at the predominant form of auction currently in use: a ‘one-sided’ auction in which a central purchaser, usually acting as an agent of the government, acquires new capacity for the purposes of meeting carbon targets or securing reliability. The use of this particular form of the instrument has been spreading rapidly in many countries across the world to the extent that it may be regarded as normal practice in some contexts – such as the procurement of new conventional generation capacity and renewable energy sources – and that further extensions into other areas – like network expansion – have been proposed. However, the widespread use of auctions of this sort is a relatively recent phenomenon and it raises a number of questions.

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