Climat: papiers de recherche moissonnés (3/05/2019)

Application of the economic theory of self-control to model energy conservation behavioral change in households / Berndt Lundgren and Mårten Schultzberg. School of Architecture and the Built Environment KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019, 19 p. (Working Paper 2019:01) lien

Smart meters and in-house displays hold a promise of energy conservation for those who invest in such technology. Research has shown that households only have a limited interest in such technology and information is thus often neglected, with rather limited energy savings. Surprisingly few empirical investigations have a theoretical foundation that may explain what is going on from a behavioral perspective. In this study the economic theory of self-control is used to model energy-efficient behavior in middle-income households in Sweden. Our results show that different levels of energy-efficient behavior do not really have any impact on the actual consumption levels of electricity. Instead, different beliefs exist of being energy-efficient, but the households do not act accordingly. Our results suggest that the payment time period should be changed to stimulate the monitoring of bills and to introduce a gaming strategy to change incentives for energy conservation.

Agir sans attendre: notre plan pour le climat / Alain Grandjean. Les Liens qui libèrent, mai 2019 lien

Quelle est cette folie qui enferme la France et l’Europe dans l’attentisme alors que se rapproche la catastrophe climatique ? Nous n’investissons pas assez – loin de là – pour développer une économie sobre et durable. Pourquoi ? Parce que tous les gouvernements sont guidés par un diktat politique fondé sur le court-termisme et la priorité exclusive donnée aux contraintes économiques.
Cet ouvrage d’Alain Grandjean, préfacé par Nicolas Hulot, déconstruit un à un les arguments qui justifient l’inaction et propose une piste de sortie par le haut. En effet, aucune règle ne nous empêche d’agir.
La démission fracassante de Nicolas Hulot l’a rappelé : il est temps de bousculer la léthargie politique des dirigeants européens et de profiter de la flexibilité que les traités de l’Union européenne autorisent. Aujourd’hui, la mise en œuvre d’un véritable plan Marshall vert s’impose.

Making Carbon Taxation a Generational Win Win / Laurence J. Kotlikoff, Felix Kubler, Andrey Polbin, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Simon Scheidegger, NBER Working Paper No. 25760, April 2019 lien

Carbon taxation has been studied primarily in social planner or infinitely lived agent models, which trade off the welfare of future and current generations. Such frameworks obscure the potential for carbon taxation to produce a generational win-win. This paper develops a large-scale, dynamic 55-period, OLG model to calculate the carbon tax policy delivering the highest uniform welfare gain to all generations. The OLG framework, with its selfish generations, seems far more natural for studying climate damage. Our model features coal, oil, and gas, each extracted subject to increasing costs, a clean energy sector, technical and demographic change, and Nordhaus (2017)’s temperature/damage functions. Our model’s optimal uniform welfare increasing (UWI) carbon tax starts at $30 tax, rises annually at 1.5 percent and raises the welfare of all current and future generations by 0.73 percent on a consumption-equivalent basis… lire

Agroecology and carbon neutrality in europe by 2050: what are the issues? Findings from the TYFA modelling exercise / Pierre-Marie Aubert, Marie-Hélène Schwoob (IDDRI), Xavier Poux (AScA, IDDRI). Paris : IDDRI, April 2019, 52 p. lien

The latest IPCC report1 sets the objective of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050, 2070 at the latest. The sustainable intensification of agricultural production, in a land sparing logic, is most often considered as a necessary step to achieve this. In contrast, this Study questions the potential contribution of a more extensive agroecological food system (i.e. land sharing logic). It rests on a comparison of the TYFA (Ten Years For Agroecology in Europe) scenario with the agricultural component of recently published scenarios achieving carbon neutrality by 2050,2 using a multi-criteria dashboard. The objective of climate mitigation is put in the broader perspective of transitioning towards a sustainable food system, taking into account the challenges of human health, conservation of natural resources and biodiversity, and adaptation to climate change…


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