Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (19/06/2019)
The Future of Hydrogen: Seizing today’s opportunities. Paris: IEA, June 2019, 203 p. lien
At the request of the government of Japan under its G20 presidency, the International Energy Agency (IEA) has produced this landmark report to analyse the current state of play for hydrogen and to offer guidance on its future development.The report finds that clean hydrogen is currently enjoying unprecedented political and business momentum, with the number of policies and projects around the world expanding rapidly. It concludes that now is the time to scale up technologies and bring down costs to allow hydrogen to become widely used. The pragmatic and actionable recommendations to governments and industry that are provided will make it possible to take full advantage of this increasing momentum.
Blockchain meets Energy: Digital Solutions for a Decentralized and Decarbonized Sector / Viktor Peter, Juan Paredes, Moisés Rosado Rivial, Eduardo Soto Sepúlveda and Diego A. Hermosilla Astorga. German-Mexican Energy Partnership and Florence School of Regulation, June 2019, 45 p. lien
(…) The energy industry is currently undergoing a double transformation: in addition to the energy transition towards renewables, digitalization is changing the basis of the value creation in the sector. With blockchain, the energy industry is also obtaining a new promising technology that is currently on everyone’s lips. Experts assume a potential for innovation and change comparable to the triumph of the Internet. The development of ever new applications based on blockchain technology and numerous projects by energy suppliers underline the high dynamics and the associated expectations… © Viktor Peter, GIZ Blockchain Lab
The Druzhba Pipeline Crisis: The Lessons for Russia and for Europe / Vitaly Yermakov, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, June 2019, 8 p. (Oxford energy comment) – lien
The contamination of the Druzhba pipeline with organic chlorides became the most serious interruption of oil supplies in the 55-year history of oil trade on this key route. This is a follow-up to the OIES Commentpublished in May 2019 that provided a background to the incident and discussed some of the potential implications of the contamination of the Druzhba pipeline. This comment argues that while the worst of the crisis is over, it is by no means the end of the story. There is little doubt that in the aftermath of the incident European refineries and policy makers will focus on security of supply issues, including options to diversify away from Russian crude. The issue of compensation for the oil contamination in the Druzhba system may become highly contentious. Any changes to Russia’s domestic oil pipeline regulation along the lines of greater control and more checks may increase costs for Russian oil producers.
Les offres vertes d’électricité : comment en garantir l’origine ? / Albert Ferrari et Stéphane Andrieu, consultant en énergie. La fabrique écologique, juin 2019, 6 p. Décryptage n°22 en PDF
En France les offres d’électricité verte deviennent la norme, mais aujourd’hui, derrière chacune d’entre elles se cachent en réalité cinquante nuances de vert. Pour aider le consommateur d’électricité à y voir plus clair, nous vous proposons une présentation du dispositif permettant de certifier l’origine verte de l’électricité et un tour d’horizon des pratiques en la matière.
Biométhane et climat font-ils bon ménage ? / Alexandre Joly et Cyril Cassagnaud. Carbon 4, juin 2019, 12 p. lien
Comment produit-on le biométhane et comment le valorise-t-on ? Où en est la filière française pour l’injection sur le réseau gaz ? Quel impact climatique ? Comment le considérer pour une entreprise ? Carbone 4 vous propose d’explorer ce nouveau vecteur énergétique à la lumière du marché français et du climat.
Gas 2019: Analysis and forecast to 2024. Paris : International Energy Agency, June 2019, 184 p. Lien
Natural gas demand grew at a remarkable clip last year, increasing by 4.6%, its highest growth rate since the beginning of the decade. Future growth will be more measured, supported by economic expansion in emerging markets – especially in Asia – and sustained policy support in the People’s Republic of China to battle air pollution. The supplies to meet that new growth will come from both new domestic production in these fast-growing economies but also increasingly from major exporting countries, led by the development of the abundant shale gas resources in the United States. International trade, supported by the strong growth in liquefied natural gas export capacity, will play a growing role in the development of natural gas markets as they move further towards globalisation. The recent convergence in market prices in major regions provides an indication of this increasing integration. However, establishing market-driven pricing mechanisms in fast-growing countries remains a challenge – albeit one that is being addressed by pricing reforms in several leading emerging economies around the world.
China: Growing import volumes of LNG highlight China’s energy import dependency / Stephen O’ Sullivan, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, June 2019, 7 p. (Oxford energy comment) lien
China’s gas demand looks set to remain relatively strong over the next several years, driven largely by government environmental policies. Over the last decade, China’s gas demand has risen more than three-fold as its economy has grown and as the government has focused on increased gas use as a route to a cleaner environment in China. While the national oil companies have been instructed to raise domestic gas production by President Xi Jinping to support China’s supply security, they are struggling to do so adequately in both the conventional and unconventional spheres. As a result, a greater dependence on imports of gas is almost inevitable. These imports started arriving as LNG from Australia in 2006 and as pipeline gas from Central Asia in 2010. It is well-known that import dependency has risen steadily since gas imports began. In 2018 it reached 43 per cent, compared with just 5 per cent a decade earlier. What is less well-known is that LNG now represents almost 60 per cent of China’s gas imports, considerably ahead of the volume of pipeline imports, a trend that started in 2017 when LNG inflows exceeded pipeline supplies for the first time…