Climat: papiers de recherche moissonnés (26/07/2019)
The global tree restoration potential / Jean-Francois Bastin, Yelena Finegold, Claude Garcia, Danilo Mollicone, Marcelo Rezende, Devin Routh, Constantin M. Zohner, Thomas W. Crowther, Science, 365, pp. 76-79, 5 July 2019 lien
The restoration of trees remains among the most effective strategies for climate change
mitigation.We mapped the global potential tree coverage to show that 4.4 billion hectares
of canopy cover could exist under the current climate. Excluding existing trees and
agricultural and urban areas, we found that there is room for an extra 0.9 billion hectares
of canopy cover, which could store 205 gigatonnes of carbon in areas that would naturally
support woodlands and forests. This highlights global tree restoration as our most effective
climate change solution to date. However, climate change will alter this potential tree
coverage.We estimate that if we cannot deviate from the current trajectory, the global
potential canopy cover may shrink by ~223 million hectares by 2050, with the vast majority
of losses occurring in the tropics. Our results highlight the opportunity of climate change
mitigation through global tree restoration but also the urgent need for action.
A Paradigm Shift in the Governance of Sustainable Development: Citizens’ Empowerment / Rafael Leal-Arcas, 11 p. In : International markets regulation and the erosion of the European political and social model. Thomson Reuters, 2019. lien
This chapter examines a novel approach to sustainable development by focusing on the potential role of citizens in international trade, climate change mitigation, and sustainable energy. This chapter argues that this novel approach is crucial to reach sustainability. This chapter aims to explain the paradigm shift in the governance of sustainable development: the 20th century was characterized by a top-down approach to the governance of climate action (eg., the Kyoto Protocol), energy (eg., inter-governmental energy agreements), and international trade (eg., inter-governmental trade agreements). The 21st century, however, offers a bottom-up approach, marking one of the mega-trends of the 21st century: in climate action, the implementation of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change is done from the bottom up via citizens, NGOs, mayors, governors, businesses, or smart cities; in energy governance, we are observing energy democratization by decentralizing the governance of energy security and creating new energy actors, namely prosumers and renewable energy cooperatives.
L’adaptation au changement climatique sur le littoral français / Jill Madelenat. La Fabrique écologique, juillet 2019, 90 p. lien
Ce premier opus des études de la Fabrique Écologique fait le point sur les conséquences du changement climatique sur les littoraux métropolitains puis analyse les différentes stratégies envisagées pour s’adapter à l’une des principales conséquences, l’élévation du niveau de la mer.