Climat: papiers de recherche moissonnés (19/09/2019)

Climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector in Europe. European Environment Agency, September 2019, 112 p. (EEA Report No 4/2019) lien

Climate change affects agriculture in a number of ways. Changes in temperature and precipitation as well as weather and climate extremes are already influencing crop yields and livestock productivity in Europe. Weather and climate conditions also affect the availability of water needed for irrigation, livestock watering practices, processing of agricultural products, and transport and storage conditions. Climate change is projected to reduce crop productivity in parts of southern Europe and to improve the conditions for growing crops in northern Europe. Although northern regions may experience longer growing seasons and more suitable crop conditions in future, the number of extreme events negatively affecting agriculture in Europe is projected to increase.

A new scenario logic for the Paris Agreement long-term temperature goal / Joeri Rogelj, Daniel Huppmann, Volker Krey, Keywan Riahi, Leon Clarke, Matthew Gidden, Zebedee Nicholls & Malte Meinshausen, Nature, vol. 573, pp. 357-363, 18/09/2019 lien

To understand how global warming can be kept well below 2 degrees Celsius and even 1.5 degrees Celsius, climate policy uses scenarios that describe how society could reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. However, current scenarios have a key weakness: they typically focus on reaching specific climate goals in 2100. This choice may encourage risky pathways that delay action, reach higher-than-acceptable mid-century warming, and rely on net removal of carbon dioxide thereafter to undo their initial shortfall in reductions of emissions. Here we draw on insights from physical science to propose a scenario framework that focuses on capping global warming at a specific maximum level with either temperature stabilization or reversal thereafter. The ambition of climate action until carbon neutrality determines peak warming, and can be followed by a variety of long-term states with different sustainability implications. The approach proposed here closely mirrors the intentions of the United Nations Paris Agreement, and makes questions of intergenerational equity into explicit design choices.

La fiscalité environnementale au défi de l’urgence climatique. France. Conseil des prélèvements obligatoires, septembre 2019, 225 p. lien

Le Conseil des prélèvements obligatoires (CPO), organisme associé à la Cour des comptes, s’est penché sur la fiscalité environnementale et, plus particulièrement, sur la fiscalité carbone.
Après deux échecs, en 2000 et 2009, la taxation du carbone n’a été mise en place qu’en 2014 et sa trajectoire de hausse a été suspendue à la suite du mouvement de contestation de l’automne 2018. La France, conformément à ses engagements internationaux, en particulier dans le cadre de l’accord de Paris sur le climat, a pourtant adopté des objectifs environnementaux ambitieux qui supposent une nette accélération du rythme de réduction de ses émissions de gaz à effet de serre.

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