Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (8/10/2019)
Towards a carbon-free, decentralized, and democratized system of energy generation / Rafael Leal-Arcas, Andrew Filis, Mariya Peykova, and Marius Greger, Connecticut Journal of International Law, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2020, Forthcoming (Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 319/2019) lien
In line with the European Union’s energy and climate targets for 2030, the European Commission has put forward a vision of an integrated energy system capable of delivering energy efficiency and a low-carbon economy. The increasing digitalisation of the energy system will serve as the vehicle to a carbon-free, decentralized, and democratized system of energy generation and transmission. The introduction of smart grids across EU Member States will contribute to the shift towards a more sustainable energy system. This article will assess the eligibility and readiness for the implementation of smart grids in three jurisdictions of the European Union: Hungary, Cyprus, and Lithuania. The main focus of the article is the electricity market in these jurisdictions. It is in this context that the article will assess the extent to which the regulatory framework in these countries is favorable to the successful implementation of smart-grid technology.
Chine : de la pétro-diplomatie à la diplomatie verte ? / Emmanuel Hache, Revue internationale et stratégique, n° 115, 2019, pp. 127-137 lien
Depuis le début des années 2000, l’affirmation de la Chine a sensiblement affecté tout à la fois l’ensemble des marchés énergétiques, les questions environnementales internationales et les relations interétatiques. Comprenant que sa recherche de puissance passait inévitablement par la maîtrise des flux énergétiques sur son territoire, le gouvernement chinois a mis en place une stratégie à double détente : la recherche de ressources carbonées à l’étranger et la diversification de son mix énergétique.
Modélisation d’un mix électrique avec stockage d’énergie électrique, mais sans énergie fossile / Ilarion Pavel, Responsabilité et environnement, n° 96, 2019, pp.120-126 lien
L’objet de cette modélisation est d’évaluer la capacité de stockage et la puissance des installations d’énergies renouvelables éolienne et solaire qui seraient nécessaires pour remplacer complètement les combustibles fossiles dans la production d’énergie électrique en France. Nous allons utiliser les données recueillies par RTE pendant trois années consécutives (2015, 2016 et 2017), concernant la consommation et la production de l’énergie électrique.
Global Gas Security Review 2019. Paris : Agence Internationale de l’Energie, octobre 2019 lien
This year’s report focuses on three topics. It first provides an update on LNG market flexibility metrics based on a detailed assessment of recent contractual activity. It analyses the evolution of flexibility in LNG supply procured by traditional Asian buyers for their domestic markets, and how this flexibility could contribute to improving security of supply for fast-growing markets elsewhere in Asia. Finally, this year’s report includes a focus on north-western Europe’s gas security challenges as a major source of domestic supply (the Groningen field in the Netherlands) is phased out.
Algerian Gas in Transition: domestic transformation and changing gas export potential / Mostefa Ouki. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, October 2019, 31 p. (OIES Paper: NG 151) lien
Algeria is at a critical stage in its history. Since February 2019, people of all strata have been taking to the street to press for radical political changes. This will undoubtedly have far-reaching implications for the country’s future and its economy. An economy that has long been driven by the hydrocarbon sector and where oil and gas exports still account for over 95 per cent of total export revenue. Algeria’s hydrocarbon endowment is dominated by its larger natural gas reserves compared to crude oil. The country, which has been producing, consuming and exporting natural gas for several decades, has reached a point where its gas balance is facing severe challenges. A declining or, at best, stagnating natural gas production and a rapid domestic gas consumption growth have combined to constrain dangerously the country’s gas export potential. The reduction of gas export revenue has led to some government energy policy responses, including a revised hydrocarbons law (yet-to-be issued) to relaunch upstream investments in partnership with international oil and gas companies. But, actions to address the issue of subsidized domestic electricity and gas prices remain absent. There is hope, though, that this state of affairs that has lasted for decades at a very high financial cost could be addressed gradually. The reasons for a potentially fundamental policy change are mainly the fact that the Algerian economy can no longer afford this heavy financial burden and the impact of the on-going political transformation.