Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (21/10/2019)
SE Europe gas markets: towards integration / Julian Bowden. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, October 2019, 33 p. (OIES paper: NG150) lien
SE Europe as a regional gas market is often overlooked because of its small size – just 25 bcma aggregate demand. However, this misses the point of its important role in other wider issues. With Russia the dominant supplier, its countries have played a transit role for Russian gas into the region and to Turkey. These flow patterns will now change from 2 developments. First, as Turk Stream is commissioned from the end of 2019, transit through Ukraine will be reduced, most of the existing 25 bcma Trans Balkan Pipeline system in Romania and Bulgaria will become empty, and some new capacity will be needed to handle Turk Stream Line 2 gas. Secondly, volumes will rise as TAP is commissioned at the end of 2020. There is a third potential development if the Romania offshore starts up in the early 2020s, turning Romania into a net exporter and probably able to supply most demand growth in the region. The region is basically a collection of island markets, poorly interconnected. The EU has a policy initiative CESEC to fast-track a number of interconnector and LNG regas projects, but to-date delivery has been unimpressive. This paper puts all these dynamics into context, and argues that if current interconnectivity plans can be delivered, the region will see improved security of supply and become a functioning gas market region by the mid-2020s.
Voiture à hydrogène : un avenir incertain / Pierre Papon, Futuribles, note de veille, 10/10/2019 accès libre jusqu’au 212/11/2019
L’utilisation de l’hydrogène comme vecteur énergétique fait l’objet d’un nouvel engouement, l’Agence internationale de l’énergie (AIE) lui a ainsi consacré un rapport dans le cadre du G20 d’Osaka. Rappelons que cette filière est associée à la technique de la pile à combustible qui, en recombinant l’hydrogène et l’oxygène de l’air, produit de l’eau, de la chaleur et de l’électricité (l’opération inverse de l’électrolyse), pour alimenter un moteur électrique…
Challenges to the Future of LNG: decarbonisation, affordability, and profitability / Jonathan Stern. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, October 2019, 35 p. lien
Decarbonisation should be very much on the radar of new LNG projects currently taking FID, commissioning around 2024-25 and planning to operate up to 2050. The LNG community needs to replace an `advocacy’ message – based on the generality of emissions from combustion of natural gas being lower than from other fossil fuels – with certified data on carbon and methane emissions from specific elements of the value chain for individual projects. As carbon reduction targets tighten over the coming decade, LNG cargoes which do not have value chain emissions certified by accredited authorities, or which fail to meet defined emission levels, run the risk of progressively being deemed to have a lower commercial value and eventually being excluded from jurisdictions with the strictest standards. There will be no place in this process for confidentiality; nothing less than complete transparency of data and methodologies will be acceptable…
Transition Towards a Decarbonised Electricity Sector. A Framework of Analysis for Power System Transformation / Gustavo De Vivero, Marie-Jeanne Kurdziel, Markus Hagemann. NewClimate Institute, October 2019, 30 p. lien
This paper develops a qualitative assessment framework that allows policy makers to understand the complexity of power sector transformation and to analyse their country’s position in the transformation process, including key challenges impacting the integration of vRES and examples for technically feasible solutions.