Climat : papiers de recherche moissonnés (16/01/2020)

L’analyse du cycle de vie : un outil multicritères et quantitatif pour l’évaluation des impacts environnementaux / Angélique Léonard, Sandra Belboom, Saïcha Gerbinet, Sylvie Groslambert & Arribas Merchan, Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège, 88, nov. 2019 lien

De nombreuses méthodes ont vu le jour dans le but d’évaluer l’impact d’une activité ou d’un produit sur l’environnement. Certaines sont centrées sur les émissions de gaz à effet de serre comme Bilan Carbone® en France ou le Greenhouse Gas Protocol au niveau international. D’autres visent l’empreinte en eau comme Water Footprint. À côté de ces méthodes quantitatives et mono-critères, il existe des approches plus qualitatives, parmi lesquels l’affichage d’étiquettes énergétiques ou de labels à caractère « écologique ». Par rapport à ces approches, l’analyse du cycle vie (ACV) possède le double avantage d’être quantitative et multicritères, le potentiel de réchauffement climatique étant l’un des impacts évalués avec d’autres comme l’acidification, l’épuisement des ressources, l’utilisation d’eau, l’eutrophisation, la formation d’ozone photochimique…

Where is the Anthropocene? IR in a new geological epoch / Dahlia Simangan, International Affairs, Volume 96, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages 211–224, https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iiz248

Several disciplines outside the natural sciences, including International Relations (IR), have engaged with the Anthropocene discourse in order to theorize their relevance and translate their practical value in this new phase of the Earth’s history. Some IR scholars have called for a post-humanist IR, planet politics, a cosmopolitan view, and ecological security, among other approaches, to recalibrate the theoretical foundations of the discipline, making it more attuned to the realities of the Anthropocene…

Environmental Governance Dynamics: Some Micro Foundations of Macro Failures / Thomas Bolognesi and Stéphane Nahrath, Ecological Economics, vol. 170, April 2020 lien

This article proposes a new theoretical explanation to the question of environmental governance failures, combining micro and macro explanations in the long run. We put forward the concept of Transversal Transaction Costs (TTCs) as a critical source of governance failures. TTCs are transaction costs induced by interlinkages between public policies and property rights, an area under-investigated by the natural resources governance literature. We emphasise that TTCs are consequential in limiting the ability of environmental governance to coordinate natural resource uses. Drawing on institutional complementary and cluster literature, we argue that TTCs increased significantly over the years shaping governance evolution at the macro level in the long run. We show that institutional resource regimes tend to get locked into an Institutional Complexity Trap (ICT), which prevents improvement in coordination capacity and explains the persistence of environmental governance failures. Four cases substantiate our conceptual proposition of transversal transaction costs. In addition, the process-tracing of six water governance cases in Europe from 1750 to 2004 provides empirical support to the macro dynamics of institutional complexity trap.


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