Energie : papiers de recherche moissonnés (7/02/2020)

L’hybridation des systèmes institutionnels nationaux dans l’interdépendance. Les échanges gaziers UE-Russie / Mehdi Abbas and Catherine Locatelli, Revue d’économie industrielle, n° 166, 2019, pp. 9-38. lien

Les interdépendances entre l’UE et ses fournisseurs extérieurs en matière de gaz naturel au premier rang desquels la Russie posent la question de la confrontation de préférences contradictoires des acteurs impliqués dans l’échange. Elles interrogent également l’impact transformatif de l’interdépendance lié à des processus d’hybridation entre acteurs asymétriques. L’article montre que la norme concurrentielle agit comme levier d’une hybridation des régulations à la fois du secteur gazier russe et de la politique énergétique de l’UE. Ainsi, le conflit de préférences UE-Russie naît de tentative européenne d’exportation de sa régulation concurrentielle au secteur gazier russe. Si celle-ci s’avère être un échec, l’importance du marché européen conduit toutefois à une adaptation du modèle russe de gouvernance gazière. Mais celle-ci implique en retour une transformation du modèle européen.

Net Zero and Beyond. What Role for Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage? / Duncan Brack and Richard King, Chatham House, Jan. 2020, 25 p. (research papers) lien

Policymakers are in danger of sleepwalking into ineffective carbon dioxide removal solutions in the quest to tackle climate change. This paper warns against overreliance on bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). 

La part des énergies renouvelables dans l’UE en hausse à 18.0%, communiqué Eurostat, 23/01/2020 lien

Douze États membres ont atteint une part égale ou supérieure à leur objectif de 2020…

The Private and External Costs of Germany’s Nuclear Phase-Out / Stephen Jarvis, Olivier Deschenes, and Akshaya Jha, Energy Institute at Haas, Jan. 2020, 61 p. lien

Many countries have phased out nuclear electricity production in response to concerns about nuclear waste and the risk of nuclear accidents. This paper examines the impact of the shutdown of roughly half of the nuclear production capacity in Germany after the Fukushima accident in 2011. We use hourly data on power plant operations and a novel machine learning framework to estimate how plants would have operated differently if the phase-out had not occurred. We find that the lost nuclear electricity production due to the phase-out was replaced primarily by coal-fired production and net electricity imports. The social cost of this shift from nuclear to coal is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Over 70% of this cost comes from the increased mortality risk associated with exposure to the local air pollution emitted when burning fossil fuels. Even the largest estimates of the reduction in the costs associated with nuclear accident risk and waste disposal due to the phase-out are far smaller than 12 billion dollars.

The Oil and Gas Industry in Energy Transitions. A World Energy Outlook special report. paris, International Energy Agency, 20/01/2020 lien

The oil and gas industry is facing increasing demands to clarify the implications of energy transitions for their operations and business models, and to explain the contributions that they can make to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and to achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. The increasing social and environmental pressures on many oil and gas companies raise complex questions about the role of these fuels in a changing energy economy, and the position of these companies in the societies in which they operate. But the core question, against a backdrop of rising GHG emissions, is a relatively simple one: should today’s oil and gas companies be viewed only as part of the problem, or could they also be crucial in solving it?


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